Sample Size Computation 
The SEQDESIGN procedure assumes that the data are from a multivariate normal distribution and the sequence of the standardized test statistics has the following canonical joint distribution:
is multivariate normal
,
where is the total number of stages and is the information available at stage .
If the test statistic is computed from the data that are not from a normal distribution, such as a binomial distribution, then it is assumed that the test statistic is computed from a large sample such that the statistic has an approximately normal distribution.
In a typical clinical trial, the sample size required depends on the Type I error probability level , alternative reference , power , and variance of the response variable. Given a onesided null hypothesis with an upper alternative hypothesis , the information required for a fixedsample test is given by
The parameter and the subsequent alternative reference depend on the test specified in the clinical trial. For example, suppose you are comparing two binomial populations ; then is the difference between two proportions if the proportion difference statistic is used, and , the log odds ratio for the two proportions if the log odds ratio statistic is used.
If the maximum likelihood estimate from the likelihood function can be derived, then the asymptotic variance for is , where is Fisher information for . The resulting statistic corresponds to the MLE statistic scale as specified in the BOUNDARYSCALE=MLE option in the PROC SEQDESIGN statement, corresponds to the standardized scale (BOUNDARYSCALE=STDZ), and corresponds to the score statistic scale (BOUNDARYSCALE=SCORE).
Alternatively, if the score statistic is derived in a statistical procedure, it can be used as the test statistic and its asymptotic variance is given by Fisher information, . In this case, corresponds to the standardized scale and corresponds to the MLE statistic scale.
For a group sequential trial, the maximum information is derived in the SEQDESIGN procedure with the specified , , and . With the maximum information
the sample size required for a specified test statistic in the trial can be evaluated or estimated from the known or estimated variance of the response variable. Note that different designs might produce different maximum information levels for the same hypothesis, and this in turn might require a different number of observations for the trial.
If each observation in the data set provides one unit of information in a hypothesis testing, such as a onesample test for the mean, the required sample size for the sequential design can be derived from the maximum information. However, for a survival analysis, an individual in the survival time data might provide only partial information because of censoring. In this case, the required number of events can be derived from the maximum information. With addition accrual information, the sample size can also be computed.
The SEQDESIGN procedure provides sample size computation for some onesample and twosample tests in the SAMPLESIZE statement. It also provides sample size computation for tests of a parameter in regression models such as normal regression, logistic regression, and proportional hazards regression. In addition, the procedure can also compute the required sample size or number of events from the corresponding number in the fixedsample design.
Table 80.11 lists the options available in the SAMPLESIZE statement.
Option 
Description 

FixedSample Models 

INPUTNOBS 
specifies sample size for fixedsample design 
INPUTNEVENTS 
specifies number of events for fixedsample design 
OneSample Models 

ONESAMPLEMEAN 
specifies onesample test for mean 
ONESAMPLEFREQ 
specifies onesample test for binomial proportion 
TwoSample Models 

TWOSAMPLEMEAN 
specifies twosample test for mean difference 
TWOSAMPLEFREQ 
specifies twosample test for binomial proportions 
TWOSAMPLESURVIVAL 
specifies logrank test for two survival distributions 
Regression Models 

REG 
specifies test for a regression parameter 
LOGISTIC 
specifies test for a logistic regression parameter 
PHREG 
specifies test for a proportional hazards regression parameter 
The MODEL=INPUTNOBS and MODEL=INPUTNEVENTS options are described next, and the remaining options are described in the next three sections.
The MODEL=INPUTNOBS option derives the sample size required for a group sequential trial from the sample size for the corresponding fixedsample design. With the N= option specifying the sample size for a fixedsample design, the sample size required for a group sequential trial is then computed as
where is the maximum information for the group sequential design and is the information for the corresponding fixedsample design. The information ratio between and is derived in the SEQDESIGN procedure.
The SAMPLE=ONE option specifies a onesample test, and the SAMPLE=TWO option specifies a twosample test. For a twosample test, the WEIGHT= option specifies the sample size allocation weights for the two groups.
The MODEL=INPUTNOBS option derives the number of events required for a group sequential trial from the number of events for the corresponding fixedsample design. With the D= option specifies the number of events for a fixedsample survival analysis, the number of events required for a group sequential trial is then computed as
where is the maximum information for the group sequential design and is the information for the corresponding fixedsample design. The information ratio between and is derived in the SEQDESIGN procedure.
The SAMPLE=ONE option specifies a onesample test, and the SAMPLE=TWO option specifies a twosample test. For a twosample test, the WEIGHT= option specifies the sample size allocation weights for the two groups.
With the computed number of events for a group sequential survival design, the required total sample size and sample size at each stage can be derived with specifications of hazard rates, accrual rate, and accrual time.
For a study group, if the hazard rate is constant, corresponding to an exponential survival distribution, and the individual accrual is uniform in the accrual time with a constant accrual rate , Kim and Tsiatis (1990, pp. 83–84) show that the expected number of events by time is given by
For a onesample design, such as a proportional hazards regression, the expected number of events by time is , where is the hazard rate for the group. For a twosample design, such as a logrank test for two survival distributions, the expected number of events by time is
where and are hazard rates in groups A and B, respectively, and is the ratio of the sample size allocation weights .
If the accrual rate is specified without the accrual time , followup time , and total study time , the SEQDESIGN procedure computes the minimum and maximum accrual times from the following equation, as described in Kim and Tsiatis (1990, p. 85):
If the accrual rate is specified with one of the three time parameters—the accrual time, followup time, and total study time—then the other two time parameters are computed in the SEQDESIGN procedure. Similarly, if the accrual rate is not specified, but two of the three time parameters are specified, then the accrual rate is derived in the SEQDESIGN procedure.
With the accrual rate and the accrual time , the total sample size is
At each stage , the number of events is given by
The corresponding time can be derived from the equation for the expected number of events, , and the resulting sample size is computed as
The following three sections describe examples of test statistics with their resulting information levels, which can then be used to derive the required sample size. The maximum likelihood estimators are used for all tests except to compare two survival distributions with a logrank test, where a score statistic is used.