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1 Separation of Variables in Cylindrical Coordinates We consider two dimensional problems with cylindrical symmetry (no dependence on z). Our variables are s in the radial direction and φ in the azimuthal direction. The LaPlace equation in cylindrical coordinates is: 1 ∂ ∂V (s, φ) 1 ∂ 2 V (s, φ) = 0 s + 2 s ∂s ∂s s ∂φ2 We try to find a solution of the form V (s, φ) = F (s)G(φ). Then G(φ) ∂ ∂F (s) F (s) ∂ 2 G(φ) = 0 s + 2 s ∂s ∂s s ∂φ2 Dividing by F (s)G(φ) and multiplying by s2 gives us: s ∂ ∂F (s) 1 ∂ 2 G(φ) = 0 s + F ∂s ∂s G ∂φ2 The first term depends upon s alone while the second term depends upon φ alone. The only way the equation can be true for all s and φ is if each term equals a constant: s ∂ ∂F (s) 1 ∂ 2 G(φ) = C s = −C and F ∂s ∂s G ∂φ2 Just like the two dimensional case in Cartesian coordinates, there are 3 possibilities: C > 0, C < 0, and C = 0. But unlike Cartesian coordinates s and φ are not interchangeable. Consider the φ equation: 1 ∂ 2 G(φ) = C G ∂φ2 => ∂ 2 G(φ) = C G(φ) ∂φ2 √ √ If C is positive, the solution is G(φ) = Ae Cφ + Be− Cφ . But G is periodic in 2π, that is, we need G(φ) = G(φ + 2π) and the exponential solutions don’t have this property. Therefore, C must be negative or zero solet’s define it as C = −k2 . Then ∂ 2 G(φ) = −k2 G(φ) ∂φ2 Furthermore => G(φ) = A cos kφ + B sin kφ G(φ + 2π) = G(φ) => 2πk = 2πn where n is an integer. Therefore, k must be a non-negative integer: k = 0, 1, 2, ... (negative integers give the same solutions as positive integers). The solution for k = 0 is G(φ) = A cos kφ + B sin kφ = A = constant, which is clearly a needed solution for problems with azimuthal symmetry. Note, unlike the Cartesian case, the condition that φ + 2π describes the same position in the plane as φ forces the separation constant to be an integer, leaving us with the radial equation: ∂ ∂F (s)) s = k2 F (s) ∂s ∂s This is easy: we take two derivatives, but multiply by s2 , so we should try a power law solution, F = sp : s s ∂ ∂sp ∂ p = p2sp = k2 F (s) = k2sp s = s ps ∂s ∂s ∂s => F (s) = Dsk + Es−k => p = ±k for k = 1, 2, 3, ... For k = 0 our result gives us only one solution, F (s) = constant, but we started with a second order differential equation which requires two solutions, so we consider the equation again with k = 0: 2 s ∂ ∂F (s) s = 0 ∂s ∂s => s ∂F (s) = constant = Q ∂s => => ∂F (s) Q = ∂s s F (s) = Q ln s + P with Q and P constants. (For k = 0, we only had one solution for G(φ). The entire solution for G(φ) for k = 0 was G(φ) = A+Bφ, but the requirement that G(φ + 2π) = G(φ) made B = 0.) Therefore, the general solution for two dimensional cylindrical coordinates is: V (s, φ) = a0 + b0 ln s + ∞ X k s (ak cos kφ + bk sin kφ) + s−k (ck cos kφ + dk sin kφ) k=1 Note, an infinite line charge has cylindrical symmetry. Our solution should provide the potential for the infinite line charge. By symmetry, the solution cannot depend upon φ, so ak = bk = ck = dk = 0, leaving us with V (s, φ) = a0 + b0 ln s, which is the solution we found by using Gauss’s law.