The IRT Procedure


  • Bock, R. D., and Aitkin, M. (1981). “Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Item Parameters: Application of an EM Algorithm.” Psychometrika 46:443–459.

  • Bock, R. D., and Lieberman, M. (1970). “Fitting a Response Model for n Dichotomously Scored Items.” Psychometrika 35:179–197.

  • De Ayala, R. J. (2009). The Theory and Practice of Item Response Theory. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Embretson, S. E., and Reise, S. P. (2000). Item Response Theory for Psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Lesaffre, E., and Spiessens, B. (2001). “On the Effect of the Number of Quadrature Points in a Logistic Random Effects Model: An Example.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C 50:325–335.

  • Masters, G. N. (1982). “A Rasch Model for Partial Credit Scoring.” Psychometrika 47:149–174.

  • McKinley, R. L., and Mills, C. N. (1985). “A Comparison of Several Goodness-of-Fit Statistics.” Applied Psychological Measurement 9:49–57.

  • Muraki, E. (1992). “A Generalized Partial Credit Model: Application of an EM Algorithm.” Applied Psychological Measurement 16:159–176.

  • Rabe-Hesketh, S., Skrondal, A., and Pickles, A. (2002). “Reliable Estimation of Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using Adaptive Quadrature.” Stata Journal 2:1–21.

  • Yen, W. M. (1981). “Using Simulation Results to Choose a Latent Trait Model.” Applied Psychological Measurement 5:245–262.