The TABLES statement requests oneway to nway frequency and crosstabulation tables and statistics for those tables.
If you omit the TABLES statement, PROC FREQ generates oneway frequency tables for all data set variables that are not listed in the other statements.
The following argument is required in the TABLES statement.
specify the frequency and crosstabulation tables to produce. A request is composed of one variable name or several variable names separated by asterisks. To request a oneway frequency table, use a single variable. To request a twoway crosstabulation table, use an asterisk between two variables. To request a multiway table (an nway table, where n>2), separate the desired variables with asterisks. The unique values of these variables form the rows, columns, and strata of the table. You can include up to 50 variables in a single multiway table request.
For twoway to multiway tables, the values of the last variable form the crosstabulation table columns, while the values of
the nexttolast variable form the rows. Each level (or combination of levels) of the other variables forms one stratum. PROC
FREQ produces a separate crosstabulation table for each stratum. For example, a specification of A
*B
*C
*D
in a TABLES statement produces k tables, where k is the number of different combinations of values for A
and B
. Each table lists the values for C
down the side and the values for D
across the top.
You can use multiple TABLES statements in the PROC FREQ step. PROC FREQ builds all the table requests in one pass of the data, so that there is essentially no loss of efficiency. You can also specify any number of table requests in a single TABLES statement. To specify multiple table requests quickly, use a grouping syntax by placing parentheses around several variables and joining other variables or variable combinations. For example, the statements shown in Table 40.8 illustrate grouping syntax.
Table 40.8: Grouping Syntax
TABLES Request 
Equivalent to 



( 

( 



( 

The TABLES statement variables are one or more variables from the DATA= input data set. These variables can be either character or numeric, but the procedure treats them as categorical variables. PROC FREQ uses the formatted values of the TABLES variable to determine the categorical variable levels. So if you assign a format to a variable with a FORMAT statement, PROC FREQ formats the values before dividing observations into the levels of a frequency or crosstabulation table. See the FORMAT procedure in the Base SAS Procedures Guide and the FORMAT statement and SAS formats in SAS Formats and Informats: Reference.
If you use PROC FORMAT to create a userwritten format that combines missing and nonmissing values into one category, PROC FREQ treats the entire category of formatted values as missing. See the discussion in the section Grouping with Formats for more information.
By default, the frequency or crosstabulation table lists the values of both character and numeric variables in ascending order based on internal (unformatted) variable values. You can change the order of the values in the table by specifying the ORDER= option in the PROC FREQ statement. To list the values in ascending order by formatted value, use ORDER=FORMATTED.
If you request a oneway frequency table for a variable without specifying options, PROC FREQ produces frequencies, cumulative frequencies, percentages of the total frequency, and cumulative percentages for each value of the variable. If you request a twoway or an nway crosstabulation table without specifying options, PROC FREQ produces crosstabulation tables that include cell frequencies, cell percentages of the total frequency, cell percentages of row frequencies, and cell percentages of column frequencies. The procedure excludes observations with missing values from the table but displays the total frequency of missing observations below each table.
Table 40.9 lists the options available in the TABLES statement. Descriptions of the options follow in alphabetical order.
Table 40.9: TABLES Statement Options
Option 
Description 

Control Statistical Analysis 

Requests tests and measures of classification agreement 

Requests tests and measures of association produced by the 

Sets confidence level for confidence limits 

Requests binomial proportions, confidence limits, and tests 

for oneway tables 

Requests chisquare tests and measures based on chisquare 

Requests confidence limits for MEASURES statistics 

Requests all CochranMantelHaenszel statistics 

Requests CMH correlation statistic, adjusted odds ratios, 

and adjusted relative risks 

Requests CMH correlation and row mean scores (ANOVA) 

statistics, adjusted odds ratios, and adjusted relative risks 

Requests Fisher’s exact test for tables larger than 

Requests GailSimon test for qualitative interactions 

Requests JonckheereTerpstra test 

Requests measures of association 

Treats missing values as nonmissing 

Requests the odds ratio for tables 

Requests polychoric correlation 

Requests relative risks for tables 

Requests risks and risk differences for tables 

Specifies type of row and column scores 

Requests CochranArmitage test for trend 

Control Additional Table Information 

Displays cell contributions to the Pearson chisquare statistic 

Displays cumulative column percentages 

Displays deviations of cell frequencies from expected values 

Displays expected cell frequencies 

Displays missing value frequencies 

Displays Pearson residuals in the CROSSLIST table 

Displays kappa coefficient weights 

Displays row and column scores 

Includes all possible combinations of variable levels in the 

Displays standardized residuals in the CROSSLIST table 

Displays percentages of total frequency for nway tables (n>2) 

Control Displayed Output 

Specifies contents label for crosstabulation tables 

Displays crosstabulation tables in ODS column format 

Formats frequencies in crosstabulation tables 

Displays twoway to nway tables in list format 

Specifies maximum number of levels to display in oneway tables 

Suppresses display of column percentages 

Suppresses display of cumulative frequencies and percentages 

Suppresses display of frequencies 

Suppresses display of percentages 

Suppresses display of crosstabulation tables but displays statistics 

Suppresses display of row percentages 

Suppresses zero frequency levels in the CROSSLIST table, 

Suppresses log warning message for the chisquare test 

Produce Statistical Graphics 

Requests plots from ODS Graphics 

Create an Output Data Set 

Names an output data set to contain frequency counts 

Includes cumulative frequencies and percentages in the 

output data set for oneway tables 

Includes expected frequencies in the output data set 

Includes row, column, and twoway table percentages in the 

output data set 
You can specify the following options in a TABLES statement.
requests tests and measures of classification agreement for square tables. This option provides the simple and weighted kappa coefficients along with their standard errors and confidence limits. For multiway tables, the AGREE option also produces the overall simple and weighted kappa coefficients (along with their standard errors and confidence limits) and tests for equal kappas among strata. For tables, this option provides McNemar’s test; for square tables that have more than two response categories (levels), this option provides Bowker’s test of symmetry. For multiway tables that have two response categories, the AGREE option also produces Cochran’s Q test. For more information, see the section Tests and Measures of Agreement.
Measures of agreement can be computed only for square tables, where the number of rows equals the number of columns. If your table is not square because of observations that have zero weights, you can specify the ZEROS option in the WEIGHT statement to include these observations in the analysis. For more information, see the section Tables with Zero Rows and Columns.
You can set the level for agreement confidence limits by specifying the ALPHA= option in the TABLES statement. The default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 95% confidence limits.
You can specify the TEST statement to request asymptotic tests for the simple and weighted kappa coefficients. You can specify the EXACT statement to request McNemar’s exact test (for tables) and exact tests for the simple and weighted kappa coefficients. For more information, see the section Exact Statistics.
The weighted kappa coefficient is computed by using agreement weights that reflect the relative agreement between pairs of variable levels. To specify the type of agreement weights and to display the agreement weights, you can specify the following options:
displays the agreement weights that PROC FREQ uses to compute the weighted kappa coefficient. Agreement weights reflect the relative agreement between pairs of variable levels. By default, PROC FREQ uses the CicchettiAllison form of agreement weights. If you specify the WT=FC option, the procedure uses the FleissCohen form of agreement weights. For more information, see the section Weighted Kappa Coefficient.
requests FleissCohen agreement weights in the weighted kappa computation. By default, PROC FREQ uses CicchettiAllison agreement weights to compute the weighted kappa coefficient. Agreement weights reflect the relative agreement between pairs of variable levels. For more information, see the section Weighted Kappa Coefficient.
requests all tests and measures that are produced by the CHISQ , MEASURES , and CMH options. You can control the number of CMH statistics to compute by specifying the CMH1 or CMH2 option.
specifies the level of confidence limits. The value of must be between 0 and 1; a confidence level of produces % confidence limits. By default ALPHA=0.05, which produces 95% confidence limits.
This option applies to confidence limits that you request in the TABLES statement. The ALPHA= option in the EXACT statement applies to confidence limits for Monte Carlo estimates of exact pvalues, which you request by specifying the MC option in the EXACT statement.
requests the binomial proportion for oneway tables. When you specify this option, by default PROC FREQ provides the asymptotic standard error, asymptotic Wald and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits, and the asymptotic equality test for the binomial proportion.
You can specify binomialoptions in parentheses after the BINOMIAL option. The LEVEL= binomialoption identifies the variable level for which to compute the proportion. If you do not specify this option, PROC FREQ computes the proportion for the first level that appears in the oneway frequency table. The P= binomialoption specifies the null proportion for the binomial tests. If you do not specify this option, PROC FREQ uses 0.5 as the null proportion for the binomial tests.
You can also specify binomialoptions to request additional tests and confidence limits for the binomial proportion. The EQUIV , NONINF , and SUP binomialoptions request tests of equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority, respectively. The CL= binomialoption requests confidence limits for the binomial proportion.
You can specify the level for the binomial confidence limits in the ALPHA= option. By default, ALPHA=0.05, which produces 95% confidence limits. As part of the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence analyses, PROC FREQ provides nullbased equivalence limits that have a confidence coefficient of % (Schuirmann, 1999). In these analyses, the default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 90% equivalence limits. For more information, see the sections Noninferiority Test and Equivalence Test.
To request exact tests for the binomial proportion, you can specify the BINOMIAL option in the EXACT statement. PROC FREQ computes exact pvalues for all binomial tests that you request, which can include noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence tests, in addition to the equality test that the BINOMIAL option produces by default.
For more information, see the section Binomial Proportion.
Table 40.10 summarizes the binomialoptions.
Table 40.10: BINOMIAL Options
Option 
Description 

Requests continuity correction 

Specifies the variable level 

Includes the level in the output data sets 

Specifies the null proportion 

Request Confidence Limits 

Requests AgrestiCoull confidence limits 

Requests Blaker confidence limits 

Requests exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits 

Requests Jeffreys confidence limits 

Requests likelihood ratio confidence limits 

Requests logit confidence limits 

Requests exact midp confidence limits 

Requests Wald confidence limits 

Requests Wilson (score) confidence limits 

Request Tests 

Requests an equivalence test 

Specifies the test margin 

Requests a noninferiority test 

Requests a superiority test 

Specifies the test variance 
You can specify the following binomialoptions:
requests confidence limits for the binomial proportion. You can specify one or more types of confidence limits. When you specify only one type, you can omit the parentheses around the request. PROC FREQ displays the confidence limits in the "Binomial Confidence Limits" table.
The ALPHA= option determines the level of the confidence limits that the CL= binomialoption provides. By default, ALPHA=0.05, which produces 95% confidence limits for the binomial proportion.
You can specify the CL= binomialoption with or without requests for binomial tests. The confidence limits that CL= produces do not depend on the tests that you request and do not use the value of the test margin (which you can specify in the MARGIN= binomialoption).
If you do not specify the CL= binomialoption, the BINOMIAL option displays Wald and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits in the "Binomial Proportion" table.
You can specify the following types:
requests AgrestiCoull confidence limits for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section AgrestiCoull Confidence Limits.
requests Blaker confidence limits for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Blaker Confidence Limits.
requests exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Exact (ClopperPearson) Confidence Limits.
If you do not specify the CL= binomialoption, PROC FREQ displays Wald and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits in the "Binomial Proportion" table. To request exact tests for the binomial proportion, you can specify the BINOMIAL option in the EXACT statement.
requests Jeffreys confidence limits for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Jeffreys Confidence Limits.
requests likelihood ratio confidence limits for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Likelihood Ratio Confidence Limits.
requests logit confidence limits for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Logit Confidence Limits.
requests exact midp confidence limits for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Midp Confidence Limits.
requests Wald confidence limits for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Wald Confidence Limits.
If you specify CL=WALD(CORRECT), the Wald confidence limits include a continuity correction. If you specify the CORRECT binomialoption, both the Wald confidence limits and the Wald tests include continuity corrections.
If you do not specify the CL= binomialoption, PROC FREQ displays Wald and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits in the "Binomial Proportion" table.
requests Wilson confidence limits for the binomial proportion. These are also known as score confidence limits. For more information, see the section Wilson (Score) Confidence Limits.
If you specify CL=WILSON(CORRECT) or the CORRECT binomialoption, the Wilson confidence limits include a continuity correction.
includes a continuity correction in the Wald confidence limits, Wald tests, and Wilson confidence limits.
You can request continuity corrections individually for Wald or Wilson confidence limits by specifying the CL=WALD(CORRECT) or CL=WILSON(CORRECT) binomialoption, respectively.
requests a test of equivalence for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Equivalence Test. You can specify the equivalence test margins, the null proportion, and the variance type in the MARGIN= , P= , and VAR= binomialoptions, respectively. To request an exact equivalence test, you can specify the BINOMIAL option in the EXACT statement.
specifies the variable level for the binomial proportion. You can specify the levelnumber, which is the order in which the level appears in the oneway frequency table. Or you can specify the levelvalue, which is the formatted value of the variable level. The levelnumber must be a positive integer. You must enclose the levelvalue in single quotes.
By default, PROC FREQ computes the binomial proportion for the first variable level that appears in the oneway frequency table.
specifies the margin for the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence tests, which you can request by specifying the NONINF , SUP , and EQUIV binomialoptions, respectively. By default, MARGIN=0.2.
For noninferiority and superiority tests, specify a single value in the MARGIN= option. The MARGIN= value must be a positive number. You can specify value as a number between 0 and 1. Or you can specify value in percentage form as a number between 1 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts that number to a proportion. PROC FREQ treats the value 1 as 1%.
For noninferiority and superiority tests, the test limits must be between 0 and 1. The limits are determined by the null proportion value (which you can specify in the P= binomialoption) and by the margin value. The noninferiority limit is the null proportion minus the margin. By default, the null proportion is 0.5 and the margin is 0.2, which produces a noninferiority limit of 0.3. The superiority limit is the null proportion plus the margin, which is 0.7 by default.
For an equivalence test, you can specify a single MARGIN= value, or you can specify both lower and upper values. If you specify a single MARGIN= value, it must be a positive number, as described previously. If you specify a single MARGIN= value for an equivalence test, PROC FREQ uses –value as the lower margin and value as the upper margin for the test. If you specify both lower and upper values for an equivalence test, you can specify them in proportion form as numbers between –1 or 1. Or you can specify them in percentage form as numbers between –100 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts the numbers to proportions. The value of lower must be less than the value of upper.
The equivalence limits must be between 0 and 1. The equivalence limits are determined by the null proportion value (which you can specify in the P= binomialoption) and by the margin values. The lower equivalence limit is the null proportion plus the lower margin. By default, the null proportion is 0.5 and the lower margin is –0.2, which produces a lower equivalence limit of 0.3. The upper equivalence limit is the null proportion plus the upper margin, which is 0.7 by default.
For more information, see the sections Noninferiority Test and Equivalence Test.
requests a test of noninferiority for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Noninferiority Test. You can specify the noninferiority test margin, the null proportion, and the variance type in the MARGIN= , P= , and VAR= binomialoptions, respectively. To request an exact noninferiority test, you can specify the BINOMIAL option in the EXACT statement.
includes the variables LevelNumber
and LevelValue
in all ODS output data sets that PROC FREQ produces when you specify the BINOMIAL option in the TABLES statement. The OUTLEVEL
option also includes the variables LevelNumber
and LevelValue
in the statistics output data set that PROC FREQ produces when you specify the BINOMIAL
option in the OUTPUT
statement.
The LevelNumber
and LevelValue
variables identify the analysis variable level for which PROC FREQ computes the binomial proportion. The value of LevelNumber
is the order of the level in the oneway frequency table. The value of LevelValue
is the formatted value of the level. You can specify the OUTLEVEL binomialoption with or without the LEVEL=
binomialoption.
specifies the null hypothesis proportion for the binomial tests. The null proportion value must be a positive number. You can specify value as a number between 0 and 1. Or you can specify value in percentage form (as a number between 1 and 100), and PROC FREQ converts that number to a proportion. PROC FREQ treats the value 1 as 1%. By default, P=0.5.
requests a test of superiority for the binomial proportion. For more information, see the section Superiority Test. You can specify the superiority test margin, the null proportion, and the variance type in the MARGIN= , P= , and VAR= binomialoptions, respectively. To request an exact superiority test, you can specify the BINOMIAL option in the EXACT statement.
specifies the type of variance to use in the Wald tests of noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence. If you specify VAR=SAMPLE, PROC FREQ computes the variance estimate by using the sample proportion. If you specify VAR=NULL, PROC FREQ computes a testbased variance by using the null hypothesis proportion (which you can specify in the P= binomialoption). For more information, see the sections Noninferiority Test and Equivalence Test. The default is VAR=SAMPLE.
displays each table cell’s contribution to the Pearson chisquare statistic in the crosstabulation table. The cell chisquare is computed as , where frequency is the table cell frequency (count) and expected is the expected cell frequency, which is computed under the null hypothesis that the row and column variables are independent. For more information, see the section Pearson ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables. This option has no effect for oneway tables or for tables that are displayed in list format (which you can request by specifying the LIST option).
requests chisquare tests of homogeneity or independence and measures of association that are based on the chisquare statistic. For twoway tables, the chisquare tests include the Pearson chisquare, likelihood ratio chisquare, and MantelHaenszel chisquare tests. The chisquare measures include the phi coefficient, contingency coefficient, and Cramér’s V. For tables, the CHISQ option also provides Fisher’s exact test and the continuityadjusted chisquare test. See the section ChiSquare Tests and Statistics for details.
For oneway tables, the CHISQ option provides the Pearson chisquare goodnessoffit test. You can also request the likelihood ratio goodnessoffit test for oneway tables by specifying the LRCHI chisqoption in parentheses after the CHISQ option. By default, the oneway chisquare tests are based on the null hypothesis of equal proportions. Alternatively, you can provide null hypothesis proportions or frequencies by specifying the TESTP= or TESTF= chisqoption, respectively. See the section ChiSquare Test for OneWay Tables for more information.
To request Fisher’s exact test for tables larger than , specify the FISHER option in the EXACT statement. Exact pvalues are also available for the Pearson, likelihood ratio, and MantelHaenszel chisquare tests. See the description of the EXACT statement for more information.
You can specify the following chisqoptions:
specifies the degrees of freedom for the chisquare tests. The value of df must not be zero. If the value of df is positive, PROC FREQ uses df as the degrees of freedom for the chisquare tests. If the value of df is negative, PROC FREQ uses df to adjust the default degrees of freedom for the chisquare tests.
By default for oneway tables, the value of df is (n – 1), where n is the number of variable levels in the table. By default for twoway tables, the value of df is (r – 1) (c – 1), where r is the number of rows in the table and c is the number of columns. See the sections ChiSquare Test for OneWay Tables and ChiSquare Tests and Statistics for more information.
If you specify a negative value of df, PROC FREQ adjusts the default degrees of freedom by adding the (negative) value of df to the default value to produce the adjusted degrees of freedom. The adjusted degrees of freedom must be positive.
The DF= chisqoption specifies or adjusts the degrees of freedom for the following chisquare tests: the Pearson and likelihood ratio goodnessoffit tests for oneway tables; and the Pearson, likelihood ratio, and MantelHaenszel chisquare tests for twoway tables.
requests the likelihood ratio goodnessoffit test for oneway tables. See the section Likelihood Ratio ChiSquare Test for OneWay Tables for more information.
By default, this test is based on the null hypothesis of equal proportions. You can provide null hypothesis proportions or frequencies by specifying the TESTP= or TESTF= chisqoption, respectively. You can request an exact likelihood ratio goodnessoffit test by specifying the LRCHI option in the EXACT statement.
specifies null hypothesis frequencies for the oneway chisquare goodnessoffit tests. See the section ChiSquare Test for OneWay Tables for details. You can list the null frequencies as values in parentheses after TESTF=. Or you can provide the null frequencies in a secondary input data set by specifying TESTF=SASdataset. The TESTF=SASdataset cannot be the same data set that you specify in the DATA= option. You can specify only one TESTF= or TESTP= data set in a single invocation of the procedure.
If you list the null frequencies as values, you can separate the values with blanks or commas. The values must be positive numbers. The number of values must equal the number of variable levels in the oneway table. The sum of the values must equal the total frequency for the oneway table. Order the values to match the order in which the corresponding variable levels appear in the oneway frequency table.
If you provide the null frequencies in a secondary input data set (TESTF=SASdataset), the variable that contains the null frequencies should be named _TESTF_
, TestFrequency
, or Frequency
. The null frequencies must be positive numbers. The number of frequencies must equal the number of levels in the oneway
frequency table, and the sum of the frequencies must equal the total frequency for the oneway table. Order the null frequencies
in the data set to match the order in which the corresponding variable levels appear in the oneway frequency table.
specifies null hypothesis proportions for the oneway chisquare goodnessoffit tests. See the section ChiSquare Test for OneWay Tables for details. You can list the null proportions as values in parentheses after TESTP=. Or you can provide the null proportions in a secondary input data set by specifying TESTP=SASdataset. The TESTP=SASdataset cannot be the same data set that you specify in the DATA= option. You can specify only one TESTF= or TESTP= data set in a single invocation of the procedure.
If you list the null proportions as values, you can separate the values with blanks or commas. The values must be positive numbers. The number of values must equal the number of variable levels in the oneway table. Order the values to match the order in which the corresponding variable levels appear in the oneway frequency table. You can specify values in probability form as numbers between 0 and 1, where the proportions sum to 1. Or you can specify values in percentage form as numbers between 0 and 100, where the percentages sum to 100.
If you provide the null proportions in a secondary input data set (TESTP=SASdataset), the variable that contains the null proportions should be named _TESTP_
, TestPercent
, or Percent
. The null proportions must be positive numbers. The number of proportions must equal the number of levels in the oneway
frequency table. You can provide the proportions in probability form as numbers between 0 and 1, where the proportions sum
to 1. Or you can provide the proportions in percentage form as numbers between 0 and 100, where the percentages sum to 100.
Order the null proportions in the data set to match the order in which the corresponding variable levels appear in the oneway
frequency table.
controls the warning message for the validity of the asymptotic Pearson chisquare test. By default, PROC FREQ displays a warning message when more than 20% of the table cells have expected frequencies that are less than 5. If you specify the NOPRINT option in the PROC FREQ statement, the procedure displays the warning in the log; otherwise, the procedure displays the warning as a footnote in the chisquare table. You can use the WARN= option to suppress the warning and to include a warning indicator in the output data set.
You can specify one or more of the following types in the WARN= option. If you specify more than one type value, enclose the values in parentheses after WARN=. For example, warn = (output noprint)
.
Value of WARN= 
Description 

OUTPUT 
Adds a warning indicator variable to the output data set 
NOLOG 
Suppresses the chisquare warning message in the log 
NOPRINT 
Suppresses the chisquare warning message in the display 
NONE 
Suppresses the chisquare warning message entirely 
If you specify the WARN=OUTPUT option, the ODS output data set ChiSq
contains a variable named Warning
that equals 1 for the Pearson chisquare observation when more than 20% of the table cells have expected frequencies that
are less than 5 and equals 0 otherwise. If you specify WARN=OUTPUT and also specify the CHISQ option in the OUTPUT
statement, the statistics output data set contains a variable named WARN_PCHI
that indicates the warning.
The WARN=NOLOG option has the same effect as the NOWARN option in the TABLES statement.
requests confidence limits for the measures of association, which you can request by specifying the MEASURES option. For more information, see the sections Measures of Association and Confidence Limits. You can set the level of the confidence limits by using the ALPHA= option. The default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 95% confidence limits.
If you omit the MEASURES option, the CL option invokes MEASURES. The CL option is equivalent to the MEASURES(CL) option.
requests CochranMantelHaenszel statistics, which test for association between the row and column variables after adjusting for the remaining variables in a multiway table. The CochranMantelHaenszel statistics include the nonzero correlation statistic, the row mean scores (ANOVA) statistic, and the general association statistic. In addition, for tables, the CMH option provides the adjusted MantelHaenszel and logit estimates of the odds ratio and relative risks, together with their confidence limits. For stratified tables, the CMH option provides the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios. (To request Tarone’s adjustment for the BreslowDay test, specify the BDT cmhoption.) See the section CochranMantelHaenszel Statistics for details.
You can use the CMH1 or CMH2 option to control the number of CMH statistics that PROC FREQ computes.
For stratified tables, you can request Zelen’s exact test for equal odds ratios by specifying the EQOR option in the EXACT statement. See the section Zelen’s Exact Test for Equal Odds Ratios for details. You can request exact confidence limits for the common odds ratio by specifying the COMOR option in the EXACT statement. This option also provides a common odds ratio test. See the section Exact Confidence Limits for the Common Odds Ratio for details.
You can specify the following cmhoptions in parentheses after the CMH option. These cmhoptions, which apply to stratified tables, are also available with the CMH1 or CMH2 option.
requests Tarone’s adjustment in the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios. See the section BreslowDay Test for Homogeneity of the Odds Ratios for details.
requests the GailSimon test for qualitative interaction, which applies to stratified tables. See the section GailSimon Test for Qualitative Interactions for details.
The COLUMN= option specifies the column of the risk differences to use in computing the GailSimon test. By default, PROC FREQ uses column 1 risk differences. If you specify COLUMN=2, PROC FREQ uses column 2 risk differences.
The GAILSIMON cmhoption has the same effect as the GAILSIMON option in the TABLES statement.
requests the MantelFleiss criterion for the MantelHaenszel statistic for stratified tables. See the section MantelFleiss Criterion for details.
requests the CochranMantelHaenszel correlation statistic. This option does not provide the CMH row mean scores (ANOVA) statistic or the general association statistic, which are provided by the CMH option. For tables larger than , the CMH1 option requires less memory than the CMH option, which can require an enormous amount of memory for large tables.
For tables, the CMH1 option also provides the adjusted MantelHaenszel and logit estimates of the odds ratio and relative risks, together with their confidence limits. For stratified tables, the CMH1 option provides the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios.
The cmhoptions for CMH1 are the same as the cmhoptions that are available with the CMH option. See the description of the CMH option for details.
requests the CochranMantelHaenszel correlation statistic and the row mean scores (ANOVA) statistic. This option does not provide the CMH general association statistic, which is provided by the CMH option. For tables larger than , the CMH2 option requires less memory than the CMH option, which can require an enormous amount of memory for large tables.
For tables, the CMH1 option also provides the adjusted MantelHaenszel and logit estimates of the odds ratio and relative risks, together with their confidence limits. For stratified tables, the CMH1 option provides the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios.
The cmhoptions for CMH2 are the same as the cmhoptions that are available with the CMH option. See the description of the CMH option for details.
specifies the label to use for crosstabulation tables in the contents file, the Results window, and the trace record. For information about output presentation, see the SAS Output Delivery System: User's Guide.
If you omit the CONTENTS= option, the contents label for crosstabulation tables is "CrossTabular Freq Table" by default.
Note that contents labels for all crosstabulation tables that are produced by a single TABLES statement use the same text. To specify different contents labels for different crosstabulation tables, request the tables in separate TABLES statements and use the CONTENTS= option in each TABLES statement.
To remove the crosstabulation table entry from the contents file, you can specify a null label with CONTENTS=''.
The CONTENTS= option affects only contents labels for crosstabulation tables. It does not affect contents labels for other PROC FREQ tables.
To specify the contents label for any PROC FREQ table, you can use PROC TEMPLATE to create a customized table template. The CONTENTS_LABEL attribute in the DEFINE TABLE statement of PROC TEMPLATE specifies the contents label for the table. See the chapter "The TEMPLATE Procedure" in the SAS Output Delivery System: User's Guide for more information.
displays crosstabulation tables by using an ODS column format instead of the default crosstabulation cell format. In the CROSSLIST table display, the rows correspond to the crosstabulation table cells, and the columns correspond to descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. The CROSSLIST table displays the same information as the default crosstabulation table (but it uses an ODS column format). For more information about the contents of the CROSSLIST table, See the section TwoWay and Multiway Tables.
You can control the contents of a CROSSLIST table by specifying the same options available for the default crosstabulation table. These include the NOFREQ , NOPERCENT , NOROW , and NOCOL options. You can request additional information in a CROSSLIST table by specifying the CELLCHI2 , DEVIATION , EXPECTED , MISSPRINT , and TOTPCT options. You can also display standardized residuals or Pearson residuals in a CROSSLIST table by specifying the CROSSLIST(STDRES) or CROSSLIST(PEARSONRES) option, respectively; these options are not available for the default crosstabulation table. The FORMAT= and CUMCOL options have no effect on CROSSLIST tables. You cannot specify both the LIST option and the CROSSLIST option in the same TABLES statement.
For CROSSLIST tables, you can use the NOSPARSE option to suppress display of variable levels that have zero frequencies. By default, PROC FREQ displays all levels of the column variable within each level of the row variable, including any levels that have zero frequencies. By default for multiway tables that are displayed as CROSSLIST tables, the procedure displays all levels of the row variable for each stratum of the table, including any row levels with zero frequencies in the stratum.
You can specify the following options:
displays the standardized residuals of the table cells in the CROSSLIST table. The standardized residual is the ratio of (frequency – expected) to its standard error, where frequency is the table cell frequency (count) and expected is the expected table cell frequency, which is computed under the null hypothesis that the row and column variables are independent. For more information, see the section Standardized Residuals. You can display the expected values and deviations by specifying the EXPECTED and DEVIATION options, respectively.
displays the Pearson residuals of the table cells in the CROSSLIST table. The Pearson residual is the square root of the table cell’s contribution to the Pearson chisquare statistic. The Pearson residual is computed as , where frequency is the table cell frequency (count) and expected is the expected table cell frequency, which is computed under the null hypothesis that the row and column variables are independent. For more information, see the section Pearson ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables. You can display the expected values, deviations, and cell chisquares by specifying the EXPECTED , DEVIATION , and CELLCHI2 options, respectively.
displays the cumulative column percentages in the cells of the crosstabulation table. The CUMCOL option does not apply to crosstabulation tables produced with the LIST or CROSSLIST option.
displays the deviations of the frequencies from the expected frequencies (frequency – expected) in the crosstabulation table. The expected frequencies are computed under the null hypothesis that the row and column variables are independent. For more information, see the section Pearson ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables. You can display the expected values by specifying the EXPECTED option. This option has no effect for oneway tables or for tables that are displayed in list format (which you can request by specifying the LIST option).
displays the expected cell frequencies in the crosstabulation table. The expected frequencies are computed under the null hypothesis that the row and column variables are independent. For more information, see the section Pearson ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables. This option has no effect for oneway tables or for tables that are displayed in list format (which you can request by specifying the LIST option).
requests Fisher’s exact test for tables that are larger than . (For tables, the CHISQ option provides Fisher’s exact test.) This test is also known as the FreemanHalton test. See the sections Fisher’s Exact Test and Exact Statistics for more information.
If you omit the CHISQ option in the TABLES statement, the FISHER option invokes CHISQ. You can also request Fisher’s exact test by specifying the FISHER option in the EXACT statement.
Note: PROC FREQ computes exact tests by using fast and efficient algorithms that are superior to direct enumeration. Exact tests are appropriate when a data set is small, sparse, skewed, or heavily tied. For some large problems, computation of exact tests might require a substantial amount of time and memory. Consider using asymptotic tests for such problems. Alternatively, when asymptotic methods might not be sufficient for such large problems, consider using Monte Carlo estimation of exact pvalues. You can request Monte Carlo estimation by specifying the MC computationoption in the EXACT statement. See the section Computational Resources for more information.
specifies a format for the following crosstabulation table cell values: frequency, expected frequency, and deviation. PROC FREQ also uses the specified format to display the row and column total frequencies and the overall total frequency in crosstabulation tables.
You can specify any standard SAS numeric format or a numeric format defined with the FORMAT procedure. The format length must not exceed 24. If you omit the FORMAT= option, by default PROC FREQ uses the BEST6. format to display frequencies less than 1E6, and the BEST7. format otherwise.
The FORMAT= option applies only to crosstabulation tables displayed in the default format. It does not apply to crosstabulation tables produced with the LIST or CROSSLIST option.
To change display formats in any FREQ table, you can use PROC TEMPLATE. See the chapter "The TEMPLATE Procedure" in the SAS Output Delivery System: User's Guide for more information.
requests the GailSimon test for qualitative interaction, which applies to stratified tables. See the section GailSimon Test for Qualitative Interactions for details.
The COLUMN= option specifies the column of the risk differences to use in computing the GailSimon test. By default, PROC FREQ uses column 1 risk differences. If you specify COLUMN=2, PROC FREQ uses column 2 risk differences.
requests the JonckheereTerpstra test. See the section JonckheereTerpstra Test for details. To request exact pvalues for the JonckheereTerpstra test, specify the JT option in the EXACT statement. See the section Exact Statistics for more information.
displays twoway and multiway tables by using a list format instead of the default crosstabulation cell format. This option displays an entire multiway table in one table, instead of displaying a separate twoway table for each stratum. For more information, see the section TwoWay and Multiway Tables.
The LIST option is not available when you request tests and statistics; you must use the standard crosstabulation table display or the CROSSLIST display when you request tests and statistics.
specifies the maximum number of variable levels to display in oneway frequency tables. The value of n must be a positive integer. PROC FREQ displays the first n variable levels, matching the order in which the levels appear in the oneway frequency table. (The ORDER= option controls the order of the variable levels. By default, ORDER=INTERNAL, which orders the variable levels by unformatted value.)
The MAXLEVELS= option also applies to oneway frequency plots, which you can request by specifying the PLOTS=FREQPLOT option when ODS Graphics is enabled.
If you specify the MISSPRINT option to display missing levels in the frequency table, the MAXLEVELS= option displays the first n nonmissing levels.
The MAXLEVELS= option does not apply to the OUT= output data set, which includes all variable levels. The MAXLEVELS= option does not affect the computation of percentages, statistics, or tests for the oneway table; these values are based on the complete table.
requests measures of association and their asymptotic standard errors. This option provides the following measures: gamma, Kendall’s taub, Stuart’s tauc, Somers’ , Somers’ , Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, lambda (symmetric and asymmetric), and uncertainty coefficients (symmetric and asymmetric). If you specify the CL option in parentheses after the MEASURES option, PROC FREQ provides confidence limits for the measures of association. For more information, see the section Measures of Association.
For tables, the MEASURES option also provides the odds ratio, column 1 relative risk, column 2 relative risk, and their asymptotic Wald confidence limits. You can request the odds ratio and relative risks separately (without the other measures of association) by specifying the RELRISK option. You can request confidence limits for the odds ratio by specifying the OR(CL=) option.
You can use the TEST statement to request asymptotic tests for the following measures of association: gamma, Kendall’s taub, Stuart’s tauc, Somers’ , Somers’ , and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. You can use the EXACT statement to request exact confidence limits for the odds ratio, exact unconditional confidence limits for the relative risks, and exact tests for the following measures of association: Kendall’s taub, Stuart’s tauc, Somers’ and , and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. For more information, see the descriptions of the TEST and EXACT statements and the section Exact Statistics.
treats missing values as a valid nonmissing level for all TABLES variables. The MISSING option displays the missing levels in frequency and crosstabulation tables and includes them in all calculations of percentages, tests, and measures.
By default, if you do not specify the MISSING or MISSPRINT option, an observation is excluded from a table if it has a missing value for any of the variables in the TABLES request. When PROC FREQ excludes observations with missing values, it displays the total frequency of missing observations below the table. See the section Missing Values for more information.
displays missing value frequencies in frequency and crosstabulation tables but does not include the missing value frequencies in any computations of percentages, tests, or measures.
By default, if you do not specify the MISSING or MISSPRINT option, an observation is excluded from a table if it has a missing value for any of the variables in the TABLES request. When PROC FREQ excludes observations with missing values, it displays the total frequency of missing observations below the table. See the section Missing Values for more information.
suppresses the display of column percentages in crosstabulation table cells.
suppresses the display of cumulative frequencies and percentages in oneway frequency tables. The NOCUM option also suppresses the display of cumulative frequencies and percentages in crosstabulation tables in list format, which you request with the LIST option.
suppresses the display of cell frequencies in crosstabulation tables. The NOFREQ option also suppresses row total frequencies. This option has no effect for oneway tables or for crosstabulation tables in list format, which you request with the LIST option.
suppresses the display of overall percentages in crosstabulation tables. These percentages include the cell percentages of the total (twoway) table frequency, as well as the row and column percentages of the total table frequency. To suppress the display of cell percentages of row or column totals, use the NOROW or NOCOL option, respectively.
For oneway frequency tables and crosstabulation tables in list format, the NOPERCENT option suppresses the display of percentages and cumulative percentages.
suppresses the display of frequency and crosstabulation tables but displays all requested tests and statistics. To suppress the display of all output, including tests and statistics, use the NOPRINT option in the PROC FREQ statement.
suppresses the display of row percentages in crosstabulation table cells.
suppresses the display of cells with a zero frequency count in LIST output and omits them from the OUT= data set. The NOSPARSE option applies when you specify the ZEROS option in the WEIGHT statement to include observations with zero weights. By default, the ZEROS option invokes the SPARSE option, which displays table cells with a zero frequency count in the LIST output and includes them in the OUT= data set. See the description of the ZEROS option for more information.
The NOSPARSE option also suppresses the display of variable levels with zero frequency in CROSSLIST tables. By default for CROSSLIST tables, PROC FREQ displays all levels of the column variable within each level of the row variable, including any column variable levels with zero frequency for that row. For multiway tables displayed with the CROSSLIST option, the procedure displays all levels of the row variable for each stratum of the table by default, including any row variable levels with zero frequency for the stratum.
suppresses the log warning message for the validity of the asymptotic Pearson chisquare test. By default, PROC FREQ provides a validity warning for the asymptotic Pearson chisquare test when more than 20cells have expected frequencies that are less than 5. This warning message appears in the log if you specify the NOPRINT option in the PROC FREQ statement,
The NOWARN option is equivalent to the CHISQ(WARN=NOLOG) option. You can also use the CHISQ(WARN=) option to suppress the warning message in the display and to request a warning variable in the chisquare ODS output data set or in the OUTPUT data set.
requests the odds ratio and confidence limits for tables. You can specify one or more types of confidence limits, which include exact, score, and Wald confidence limits. When you specify only one confidence limit type, you can omit the parentheses around the request.
PROC FREQ displays the confidence limits in the "Odds Ratio Confidence Limits" table. Specifying the OR option without the CL= option is equivalent to specifying the RELRISK option, which produces the "Odds Ratio and Relative Risks" table. For more information, see the description of the RELRISK option. When you specify the OR(CL=) option, PROC FREQ does not produce the "Odds Ratio and Relative Risks" table unless you also specify the RELRISK or MEASURES option.
The ALPHA= option determines the confidence level; by default, ALPHA=0.05, which produces 95% confidence limits for the odds ratio.
You can specify the following types:
displays exact confidence limits for the odds ratio in the "Confidence Limits for the Odds Ratio" table. You must also request computation of the exact confidence limits by specifying the OR option in the EXACT statement. For more information, see the section Exact Confidence Limits for the Odds Ratio.
requests score confidence limits for the odds ratio. For more information, see the section Score Confidence Limits for the Odds Ratio. If you specify CORRECT=NO, PROC FREQ provides the uncorrected form of the confidence limits.
requests asymptotic Wald confidence limits for the odds ratio. For more information, see the section Odds Ratio and Relative Risks for 2 x 2 Tables.
names an output data set that contains frequency or crosstabulation table counts and percentages. If more than one table request
appears in the TABLES statement, the contents of the OUT= data set correspond to the last table request in the TABLES statement.
The OUT= data set variable COUNT
contains the frequencies and the variable PERCENT
contains the percentages. See the section Output Data Sets for details. You can specify the following options to include additional information in the OUT= data set: OUTCUM
, OUTEXPECT
, and OUTPCT
.
includes cumulative frequencies and cumulative percentages in the OUT=
data set for oneway tables. The variable CUM_FREQ
contains the cumulative frequencies, and the variable CUM_PCT
contains the cumulative percentages. See the section Output Data Sets for details. The OUTCUM option has no effect for twoway or multiway tables.
includes expected cell frequencies in the OUT=
data set for crosstabulation tables. The variable EXPECTED
contains the expected cell frequencies. See the section Output Data Sets for details. The EXPECTED option has no effect for oneway tables.
includes the following additional variables in the OUT= data set for crosstabulation tables:
PCT_COL
percentage of column frequency
PCT_ROW
percentage of row frequency
PCT_TABL
percentage of stratum (twoway table) frequency, for nway tables where n > 2
See the section Output Data Sets for details. The OUTPCT option has no effect for oneway tables.
requests the polychoric correlation coefficient and its asymptotic standard error. For tables, this statistic is more commonly known as the tetrachoric correlation coefficient, and it is labeled as such in the displayed output. For more information, see the section Polychoric Correlation.
If you also specify the CL or MEASURES(CL) option, PROC FREQ provides confidence limits for the polychoric correlation. If you specify the PLCORR option in the TEST statement, the procedure provides Wald and likelihood ratio tests for the polychoric correlation. The PLCORR option invokes the MEASURES option.
You can specify the following options:
specifies the convergence criterion for computing the polychoric correlation. The convergence criterion value must be a positive number. By default, CONVERGE=0.0001. Iterative computation of the polychoric correlation stops when the convergence measure falls below value or when the number of iterations exceeds the MAXITER= number, whichever happens first. For parameter values that are less than 0.01, PROC FREQ evaluates convergence by using the absolute difference instead of the relative difference. For more information, see the section Polychoric Correlation.
specifies the maximum number of iterations for computing the polychoric correlation. The value of number must be a positive integer. By default, MAXITER=20. Iterative computation of the polychoric correlation stops when the number of iterations exceeds the maximum number or when the convergence measure falls below the CONVERGE= value, whichever happens first. For more information, see the section Polychoric Correlation.
controls the plots that are produced through ODS Graphics. Plotrequests identify the plots, and plotoptions control the appearance and content of the plots. You can specify plotoptions in parentheses after a plotrequest. A globalplotoption applies to all plots for which it is available unless it is altered by a specific plotoption. You can specify globalplotoptions in parentheses after the PLOTS option.
When you specify only one plotrequest, you can omit the parentheses around the request. For example:
plots=all plots=freqplot plots=(freqplot oddsratioplot) plots(only)=(cumfreqplot deviationplot)
ODS Graphics must be enabled before plots can be requested. For example:
ods graphics on; proc freq; tables treatment*response / chisq plots=freqplot; weight wt; run; ods graphics off;
For more information about enabling and disabling ODS Graphics, see the section Enabling and Disabling ODS Graphics in Chapter 21: Statistical Graphics Using ODS.
If ODS Graphics is enabled but you do not specify the PLOTS= option, PROC FREQ produces all plots that are associated with the analyses that you request, with the exception of the frequency, cumulative frequency, and mosaic plots. To produce a frequency plot or cumulative frequency plot when ODS Graphics is enabled, you must specify the FREQPLOT or CUMFREQPLOT plotrequest, respectively, in the PLOTS= option, or you must specify the PLOTS=ALL option. To produce a mosaic plot when ODS Graphics is enabled, you must specify the MOSAICPLOT plotrequest in the PLOTS= option, or you must specify the PLOTS=ALL option.
PROC FREQ produces the remaining plots (listed in Table 40.11) by default when you request the corresponding TABLES statement options. You can suppress default plots and request specific plots by using the PLOTS(ONLY)= option; PLOTS(ONLY)=(plotrequests) produces only the plots that are specified as plotrequests. You can suppress all plots by specifying the PLOTS=NONE option. The PLOTS option has no effect when you specify the NOPRINT option in the PROC FREQ statement.
Plot Requests
Table 40.11 lists the available plotrequests together with their required TABLES statement options. Descriptions of the plotrequests follow the table in alphabetical order.
Table 40.11: Plot Requests
Plot Request 
Description 
Required TABLES Statement Option 

Agreement plot 
AGREE ( table) 

All plots 
None 

Cumulative frequency plot 
Oneway table request 

Deviation plot 
CHISQ (oneway table) 

Frequency plot 
Any table request 

Kappa plot 
AGREE ( table) 

Mosaic plot 
Twoway or multiway table request 

No plots 
None 

Odds ratio plot 

Relative risk plot 

Risk difference plot 
RISKDIFF ( table) 

Weighted kappa plot 
AGREE ( table, ) 
You can specify the following plotrequests:
requests an agreement plot (Bangdiwala and Bryan, 1987), An agreement plot displays the strength of agreement in a twoway table, where the row and column variables represent two independent ratings of n subjects. For information about agreement plots, see Bangdiwala (1988), Bangdiwala et al. (2008), and Friendly (2000, Section 3.7.2).
To produce an agreement plot, you must also specify the AGREE option in the TABLES statement. Agreement statistics and plots are available for twoway square tables, where the number of rows equals the number of columns.
Table 40.12 lists the plotoptions that are available for agreement plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
Table 40.12: Plot Options for AGREEPLOT
Plot Option 
Description 
Values 

Legend 
NO or YES 

Partial agreement 
NO or YES 

Frequency scale 
NO or YES 

Statistics 
None 

Default 
If you specify the STATS
plotoption, the agreement plot displays the values of the kappa coefficient, the weighted kappa coefficient, the measure (Bangdiwala and Bryan, 1987), and the sample size. PROC FREQ stores these statistics in an ODS table named BnMeasure
, which is not displayed. For more information, see the section ODS Table Names.
requests all plots that are associated with the specified analyses. Table 40.11 lists the available plotrequests and the corresponding analysis options. If you specify the PLOTS=ALL option, PROC FREQ produces the frequency, cumulative frequency, and mosaic plots that are associated with the tables that you request. (These plots are not produced by default when ODS Graphics is enabled.)
requests a plot of cumulative frequencies. Cumulative frequency plots are available for oneway frequency tables.
To produce a cumulative frequency plot, you must specify the CUMFREQPLOT plotrequest in the PLOTS= option, or you must specify the PLOTS=ALL option. PROC FREQ does not produce cumulative frequency plots by default when ODS Graphics is enabled.
Table 40.13 lists the plotoptions that are available for cumulative frequency plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
requests a plot of relative deviations from expected frequencies. Deviation plots are available for chisquare analysis of oneway frequency tables. To produce a deviation plot, you must also specify the CHISQ option in the TABLES statement for a oneway frequency table.
Table 40.14 lists the plotoptions that are available for deviation plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
requests a frequency plot. Frequency plots are available for frequency and crosstabulation tables. For multiway crosstabulation tables, PROC FREQ provides a twoway frequency plot for each stratum (twoway table).
To produce a frequency plot, you must specify the FREQPLOT plotrequest in the PLOTS= option, or you must specify the PLOTS=ALL option. PROC FREQ does not produce frequency plots by default when ODS Graphics is enabled.
Table 40.15 lists the plotoptions that are available for frequency plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
Table 40.15: Plot Options for FREQPLOT
Plot Option 
Description 
Values 

Primary group 
COLUMN or ROW 

Sections per panel 
Number (4) 

Orientation 
HORIZONTAL or VERTICAL 

Scale 
FREQ, GROUPPERCENT, 

LOG, PERCENT, SQRT 

Twoway layout 
CLUSTER, GROUPHORIZONTAL, 

GROUPVERTICAL, or STACKED 

Type 
BARCHART or DOTPLOT 

Default 

For twoway tables 
You can specify the following plotoptions for all frequency plots: ORIENT= , SCALE= , and TYPE= . You can specify the following plotoptions for frequency plots of twoway (and multiway) tables: GROUPBY= , NPANELPOS= , and TWOWAY= . The NPANELPOS= plotoption is not available with the TWOWAY=CLUSTER or TWOWAY=STACKED layout, which is always displayed in a single panel.
By default, PROC FREQ displays frequency plots as bar charts. To display frequency plots as dot plots, specify TYPE=DOTPLOT . To plot percentages instead of frequencies, specify SCALE=PERCENT . For twoway tables, there are four frequency plot layouts available, which you can request by specifying the TWOWAY= plotoption. For more information, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
By default, graph cells in a twoway layout are first grouped by column variable levels; row variable levels are then displayed within the column variable levels. To group first by row variable levels, specify GROUPBY=ROW .
requests a plot of kappa statistics along with confidence limits. Kappa plots are available for multiway square tables and display the kappa statistic (with confidence limits) for each twoway table (stratum). Kappa plots also display the overall kappa statistic unless you specify the COMMON=NO plotoption. To produce a kappa plot, you must specify the AGREE option in the TABLES statement to compute kappa statistics.
Table 40.16 lists the plotoptions that are available for kappa plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
Table 40.16: Plot Options for KAPPAPLOT and WTKAPPAPLOT
Plot Option 
Description 
Values 

Error bar type 
BAR, LINE, LINEARROW, 

SERIF, or SERIFARROW 

Overall kappa 
NO or YES 

Statistics per graphic 
Number (all) 

Order of twoway levels 
ASCENDING or DESCENDING 

Range to display 
Values or CLIP 

Statistic values 
None 

Default 
requests a mosaic plot. Mosaic plots are available for twoway and multiway crosstabulation tables; for multiway tables, PROC FREQ provides a mosaic plot for each twoway table (stratum).
To produce a mosaic plot, you must specify the MOSAICPLOT plotrequest in the PLOTS= option, or you must specify the PLOTS=ALL option. PROC FREQ does not produce mosaic plots by default when ODS Graphics is enabled.
Mosaic plots display tiles that correspond to the crosstabulation table cells. The areas of the tiles are proportional to the frequencies of the table cells. The column variable is displayed on the X axis, and the tile widths are proportional to the relative frequencies of the column variable levels. The row variable is displayed on the Y axis, and the tile heights are proportional to the relative frequencies of the row levels within column levels. For more information, see Friendly (2000).
By default, the colors of the tiles correspond to the row variable levels. If you specify the COLORSTAT= plotoption, the tiles are colored according to the values of the Pearson or standardized residuals.
You can specify the following plotoptions:
colors the mosaic plot tiles according to the values of residuals. If you specify COLORSTAT=PEARSONRES, the tiles are colored according to the Pearson residuals of the corresponding table cells. For more information, see the section Pearson ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables. If you specify COLORSTAT=STDRES, the tiles are colored according to the standardized residuals of the corresponding table cells. For more information, see the section Standardized Residuals. You can display the Pearson or standardized residuals in the CROSSLIST table by specifying the CROSSLIST(PEARSONRES) or CROSSLIST(STDRES) option, respectively.
produces a square mosaic plot, where the height of the Y axis equals the width of the X axis. In a square mosaic plot, the scale of the relative frequencies is the same on both axes. By default, PROC FREQ produces a rectangular mosaic plot.
requests a plot of odds ratios along with confidence limits. Odds ratio plots are available for multiway tables and display the odds ratio (with confidence limits) for each table (stratum). To produce an odds ratio plot, you must also specify the MEASURES , OR(CL=) , or RELRISK option in the TABLES statement to compute the odds ratios.
Table 40.17 lists the plotoptions that are available for odds ratio plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
Table 40.17: Plot Options for ODDSRATIOPLOT, RELRISKPLOT, and RISKDIFFPLOT
Plot Option 
Description 
Values 

Confidence limit type 
Type 

Error bar type 
BAR, LINE, LINEARROW, 

SERIF, or SERIFARROW 

Common value 
NO or YES 

Risk column 
1 or 2 

Axis scale 
2, E, or 10 

Statistics per graphic 
Number (all) 

Order of twoway levels 
ASCENDING or DESCENDING 

Range to display 
Values or CLIP 

Statistic values 
None 

Default 

Available for RELRISKPLOT and RISKDIFFPLOT 

Available for ODDSRATIOPLOT and RELRISKPLOT 
You can specify one of the following confidence limit types for the odds ratio plot: exact (CL=EXACT ), score (CL=SCORE ), or Wald (CL=WALD ). By default, the odds ratio plot displays Wald confidence limits. For more information, see the descriptions of the CL= plotoption and the OR(CL=) option.
To display exact or score confidence limits in the odds ratio plot, you must also request their computation. You can request exact confidence limits for the odds ratio by specifying the OR option in the EXACT statement. You can request score confidence limits for the odds ratio by specifying the OR(CL=SCORE) option in the TABLES statement.
When CL=WALD or CL=EXACT, the odds ratio plot displays the common odds ratio by default when it is available. To compute the common odds ratio along with Wald confidence limits, specify the CMH option in the TABLES statement. To compute the common odds ratio along with exact confidence limits, specify the COMOR option in the EXACT statement. To suppress display of the common odds ratio, specify COMMON=NO . When CL=SCORE , the odds ratio plot does not display the common odds ratio.
requests a plot of relative risks along with confidence limits. Relative risk plots are available for multiway tables and display the relative risk (with confidence limits) for each table (stratum). To produce a relative risk plot, you must also specify the MEASURES or RELRISK option in the TABLES statement to compute relative risks.
Table 40.17 lists the plotoptions that are available for relative risk plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
You can specify one of the following confidence limit types for the relative risk plot: exact (CL=EXACT ), score (CL=SCORE ), or Wald (CL=WALD ). By default, the relative risk plot displays Wald confidence limits. For more information, see the descriptions of the CL= plotoption and the RELRISK(CL=) option.
To display exact or score confidence limits in the relative risk plot, you must also request their computation. To request exact confidence limits for the relative risk, specify the RELRISK option in the EXACT statement. To request score confidence limits for the relative risk, specify the RELRISK(CL=SCORE) option in the TABLES statement. The risk column that you specify for the confidence limits must match the risk column that you specify for the plot.
The relative risk plot displays the common relative risk by default when you specify CL=WALD and the CMH option in the TABLES statement. To suppress display of the common relative risk, specify COMMON=NO . When you specify CL=EXACT or CL=SCORE , the relative risk plot does not display the common relative risk.
requests a plot of risk (proportion) differences along with confidence limits. Risk difference plots are available for multiway tables and display the risk difference (with confidence limits) for each table (stratum). To produce a risk difference plot, you must also specify the RISKDIFF option in the TABLES statement to compute risk differences.
Table 40.17 lists the plotoptions that are available for risk difference plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
You can specify the CL= plotoption to display one of the following confidence limit types in the risk difference plot: AgrestiCaffo, exact, HauckAnderson, MiettinenNurminen (score), Newcombe, and Wald. By default, the plot displays Wald confidence limits for the risk difference. For more information, see the descriptions of the CL= plotoption and the RISKDIFF(CL=) option.
To display exact confidence limits in the risk difference plot, you must also request their computation by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement. The risk column that you specify for the confidence limits must match the risk column that you specify for the plot.
By default, the risk difference plot displays the common risk difference when you specify the RISKDIFF(COMMON) option and one of the following confidence limit types in the CL= plotoption: MiettinenNurminen (score) (CL=MN ), Newcombe (CL=NEWCOMBE ), or Wald (CL=WALD ). To suppress display of the common risk difference, specify COMMON=NO .
requests a plot of weighted kappa coefficients along with confidence limits. Weighted kappa plots are available for multiway square tables and display the weighted kappa coefficient (with confidence limits) for each twoway table (stratum). Weighted kappa plots also display the overall weighted kappa coefficient unless you specify the COMMON=NO plotoption.
To produce a weighted kappa plot, you must specify the AGREE option in the TABLES statement to compute weighted kappa coefficients, and the table dimension must be greater than 1.
Table 40.16 lists the plotoptions that are available for weighted kappa plots. For descriptions of the plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
Global Plot Options
A globalplotoption applies to all plots for which the option is available unless it is altered by an individual plotoption. You can specify globalplotoptions in parentheses after the PLOTS option. For example:
plots(order=ascending stats)=(riskdiffplot oddsratioplot) plots(only)=freqplot
The following plotoptions are available as globalplotoptions: CLDISPLAY= , COLUMN= , COMMON= , EXACT , LOGBASE= , NPANELPOS= , ORDER= , ORIENT= , RANGE= , SCALE= , STATS , and TYPE= . For descriptions of these plotoptions, see the subsection "Plot Options" .
In addition to these plotoptions, you can specify the following globalplotoption:
You can specify the following plotoptions in parentheses after a plotrequest:
specifies the type of confidence limits to display. You can specify the CL= plotoption when you specify the following plotrequests: ODDSRATIOPLOT , RELRISKPLOT , and RISKDIFFPLOT .
For odds ratio plots (ODDSRATIOPLOT ), the available confidence limit types include exact, score, and Wald, which you can request by specifying CL=EXACT, CL=SCORE, and CL=WALD, respectively. For more information, see the description of the OR(CL=) option and the section Odds Ratio and Relative Risks for 2 x 2 Tables. The default is CL=WALD. When you specify CL=EXACT to display exact confidence limits, you must also request computation of exact confidence limits by specifying the OR option in the EXACT statement. When you specify CL=SCORE, you must also request computation of score confidence limits by specifying the OR(CL=SCORE) option in the TABLES statement.
For relative risk plots (RELRISKPLOT ), the available confidence limit types include exact, score, and Wald, which you can request by specifying CL=EXACT, CL=SCORE, and CL=WALD, respectively. For more information, see the description of the RELRISK(CL=) option and the section Relative Risks. The default is CL=WALD. When you specify CL=EXACT to display exact confidence limits, you must also request computation of exact confidence limits by specifying the RELRISK option in the EXACT statement. When you specify CL=SCORE, you must also request computation of score confidence limits by specifying the RELRISK(CL=SCORE) option in the TABLES statement.
For risk difference plots (RISKDIFFPLOT ), the available confidence limit types include the following: AgrestiCaffo (CL=AC), exact (CL=EXACT), HauckAnderson (CL=HA), MiettinenNurminen (score) (CL=MN), Newcombe (CL=NEWCOMBE), and Wald (CL=WALD). For more information, see the description of the RISKDIFF(CL=) option and the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits. If you specify CL=EXACT to display exact confidence limits in the plot, you must also request computation of exact confidence limits by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement.
controls the appearance of the confidence limit error bars. You can specify the CLDISPLAY= plotoption when you specify the following plotrequests: KAPPAPLOT , ODDSRATIOPLOT , RELRISKPLOT , RISKDIFFPLOT , and WTKAPPAPLOT .
The default is CLDISPLAY=SERIF, which displays the confidence limits as lines with serifs. CLDISPLAY=LINE displays the confidence limits as plain lines without serifs. The CLDISPLAY=SERIFARROW and CLDISPLAY=LINEARROW plotoptions display arrowheads on any error bars that are clipped by the RANGE= plotoption; if an entire error bar is cut from the plot, the plot displays an arrowhead that points toward the statistic.
CLDISPLAY=BAR displays the confidence limits as bars. By default, the width of the bars equals the size of the marker for the estimate. You can control the width of the bars and the size of the marker by specifying the value of width as a percentage of the distance between bars, . The bar might disappear when the value of width is very small.
specifies the table column to use to compute the risks (proportion) for the relative risk plot (RELRISKPLOT ) and the risk difference plot (RISKDIFFPLOT ). If you specify COLUMN=1, the plot displays the column 1 relative risks or the column 1 risk differences. Similarly, if you specify COLUMN=2, the plot displays the column 2 relative risks or risk differences.
For relative risk plots, the default is COLUMN=1. For risk difference plots, the default is COLUMN=1 if you request computation of both column 1 and column 2 risk differences by specifying the RISKDIFF option. If you request computation of only the column 1 (or column 2) risk differences by specifying the RISKDIFF(COLUMN=1) (or RISKDIFF(COLUMN=2) ) option, by default the risk difference plot displays the risk differences for the column that you specify.
controls the display of the common (overall) statistic in plots that display stratum (twoway table) statistics for multiway tables. You can specify the COMMON= plotoption when you specify the following plotrequests: KAPPAPLOT , ODDSRATIOPLOT , RELRISKPLOT , RISKDIFFPLOT , and WTKAPPAPLOT .
COMMON=NO suppresses display of the common statistic and its confidence limits. By default, COMMON=YES, which displays the common statistic and its confidence limits when these values are available. For more information, see the descriptions of the plotrequests.
requests display of exact confidence limits instead of asymptotic confidence limits. You can specify the EXACT plotoption when you specify the following plotrequests: ODDSRATIOPLOT , RELRISKPLOT , and RISKDIFFPLOT . The EXACT plotoption is equivalent to the CL=EXACT plotoption.
When you specify the EXACT plotoption, you must also request computation of exact confidence limits by specifying the appropriate statisticoption in the EXACT statement.
specifies the primary grouping for twoway frequency plots, which you can request by specifying the FREQPLOT plot=request. The default is GROUPBY=COLUMN, which groups graph cells first by column variable and displays row variable levels within column variable levels. You can specify GROUPBY=ROW to group first by row variable. In twoway and multiway table requests, the column variable is the last variable specified and forms the columns of the crosstabulation table. The row variable is the nexttolast variable specified and forms the rows of the table.
By default for a bar chart that is displayed in the TWOWAY=STACKED layout, bars correspond to the column variable levels, and row levels are displayed (stacked) within each column bar. By default for a bar chart that is displayed in the TWOWAY=CLUSTER layout, bars are first grouped by column variable levels, and row levels are displayed as adjacent bars within each columnlevel group. You can reverse the default row and column variable grouping by specifying GROUPBY=ROW.
applies to the odds ratio plot (ODDSRATIOPLOT ) and the relative risk plot (RELRISKPLOT ). This plotoption displays the odds ratio or relative risk axis on the log scale that you specify.
applies to the agreement plot (AGREEPLOT ). LEGEND=NO suppresses the legend that identifies the areas of exact and partial agreement. The default is LEGEND=YES.
applies to the deviation plot (DEVIATIONPLOT ). NOSTAT suppresses the chisquare pvalue that deviation plot displays by default.
divides the plot into multiple panels that display at most statistics or sections.
If n is positive, the number of statistics or sections per panel is balanced; if n is negative, the number of statistics per panel is not balanced. For example, suppose you want to display 21 odds ratios. NPANELPOS=20 displays two panels, the first with 11 odds ratios and the second with 10 odds ratios; NPANELPOS=–20 displays 20 odds ratios in the first panel but only 1 odds ratio in the second panel. This plotoption is available for all plots except mosaic plots and oneway weighted frequency plots.
For twoway frequency plots (FREQPLOT ), NPANELPOS=n requests that panels display at most sections, where sections correspond to row or column variable levels, depending on the type of plot and the grouping. By default, n=4 and each panel includes at most four sections. This plotoption applies to twoway plots that are displayed in the TWOWAY=GROUPVERTICAL or TWOWAY=GROUPHORIZONTAL layout. The NPANELPOS= plotoption does not apply to the TWOWAY=CLUSTER and TWOWAY=STACKED layouts, which are always displayed in a single panel.
For plots that display statistics along with confidence limits, NPANELPOS=n requests that panels display at most statistics. By default, n=0 and all statistics are displayed in a single panel. This plotoption applies to the following plots: KAPPAPLOT , ORPLOT , RELRISKPLOT , RISKDIFFPLOT , and WTKAPPAPLOT .
displays the twoway table (strata) statistics in order of the statistic value. You can specify the ORDER= plotoption when you specify the following plotrequests: KAPPAPLOT , ODDSRATIOPLOT , RELRISKPLOT , RISKDIFFPLOT , and WTKAPPAPLOT .
If you specify ORDER=ASCENDING or ORDER=DESCENDING, the plot displays the statistics in ascending or descending order, respectively. By default, the order of the statistics in the plot matches the order that the twoway table strata appear in the multiway table display.
controls the orientation of the plot. You can specify the ORIENT= plotoption when you specify the following plotrequests: CUMFREQPLOT , DEVIATIONPLOT , and FREQPLOT .
ORIENT=HORIZONTAL places the variable levels on the Y axis and the frequencies, percentages, or statistic values on the X axis. ORIENT=VERTICAL places the variable levels on the X axis. The default orientation is ORIENT=VERTICAL for bar charts (TYPE=BARCHART ) and ORIENT=HORIZONTAL for dot plots (TYPE=DOTPLOT ).
controls the display of partial agreement in the agreement plot (AGREEPLOT ). PARTIAL=NO suppresses the display of partial agreement. When you specify PARTIAL=NO, the agreement plot displays only exact agreement. Exact agreement includes the diagonal cells of the square table, where the row and column variable levels are the same. Partial agreement includes the adjacent offdiagonal table cells, where the row and column values are within one level of exact agreement. The default is PARTIAL=YES.
specifies the range of values to display. You can specify the RANGE= plotoption when you specify the following plotrequests: KAPPAPLOT , ODDSRATIOPLOT , RELRISKPLOT , RISKDIFFPLOT , and WTKAPPAPLOT .
If you specify RANGE=CLIP, the confidence limits are clipped and the display range is determined by the minimum and maximum values of the statistics. By default, the display range includes all confidence limits.
specifies the scale of the frequencies to display. This plotoption is available for frequency plots (FREQPLOT ) and cumulative frequency plots (CUMFREQPLOT ).
The default is SCALE=FREQ, which displays unscaled frequencies. SCALE=PERCENT displays percentages (relative frequencies) of the total frequency. SCALE=LOG displays log (base 10) frequencies. SCALE=SQRT displays square roots of the frequencies, producing a plot known as a rootogram.
SCALE=GROUPPERCENT is available for twoway frequency plots. This option displays the row or column percentages instead of the overall percentages (of the table frequency). By default (or when you specify the GROUPBY=COLUMN plotoption), SCALE=GROUPPERCENT displays the column percentages. If you specify the GROUPBY=ROW plotoption, the primary grouping of graph cells is by row variable level and the plot displays row percentages. For more information, see the description of the GROUPBY= plotoption.
controls the display of the cumulative frequency scale on the right side of the agreement plot (AGREEPLOT ). SHOWSCALE=NO suppresses the display of the scale. The default is SHOWSCALE=YES.
displays statistic values in the plot. For the following plotrequests, the STATS plotoption displays the statistics and their confidence limits on the right side of the plot: KAPPAPLOT , ODDSRATIOPLOT , RELRISKPLOT , RISKDIFFPLOT , and WTKAPPAPLOT .
For the agreement plot (AGREEPLOT
), the STATS plotoption displays the values of the kappa statistic, the weighted kappa statistic, the measure (Bangdiwala and Bryan, 1987), and the sample size. PROC FREQ stores these statistics in an ODS table named BnMeasure
, which is not displayed. For more information, see the section ODS Table Names.
If you do not request the STATS plotoption, these plots do not display the statistic values.
specifies the layout for twoway frequency plots.
All TWOWAY= layouts are available for bar charts (TYPE=BARCHART ). All TWOWAY= layouts except TWOWAY=CLUSTER are available for dot plots (TYPE=DOTPLOT ). The ORIENT= and GROUPBY= plotoptions are available for all TWOWAY= layouts.
The default twoway layout is TWOWAY=GROUPVERTICAL, which produces a grouped plot that has a vertical common baseline. By default for bar charts (TYPE=BARCHART , ORIENT=VERTICAL ), the X axis displays column variable levels, and the Y axis displays frequencies. The plot includes a vertical (Yaxis) block for each row variable level. The relative positions of the graph cells in this plot layout are the same as the relative positions of the table cells in the crosstabulation table. You can reverse the default row and column grouping by specifying the GROUPBY=ROW plotoption.
The TWOWAY=GROUPHORIZONTAL layout produces a grouped plot that has a horizontal common baseline. By default (GROUPBY=COLUMN ), the plot displays a block on the X axis for each column variable level. Within each columnlevel block, the plot displays row variable levels.
The TWOWAY=STACKED layout produces stacked displays of frequencies. By default (GROUPBY=COLUMN ) in a stacked bar chart, the bars correspond to column variable levels, and row levels are stacked within each column level. By default in a stacked dot plot, the dotted lines correspond to column levels, and cell frequencies are plotted as data dots on the corresponding column line. The dot color identifies the row level.
The TWOWAY=CLUSTER layout, which is available only for bar charts, displays groups of adjacent bars. By default, the primary grouping is by column variable level, and row levels are displayed within each column level.
You can reverse the default row and column grouping in any layout by specifying the GROUPBY=ROW plotoption. The default is GROUPBY=COLUMN , which groups first by column variable.
specifies the plot type (format) of the frequency (FREQPLOT ), cumulative frequency (CUMFREQPLOT ), and deviation plots (DEVIATIONPLOT ). TYPE=BARCHART produces a bar chart and TYPE=DOTPLOT produces a dot plot. The default is TYPE=BARCHART.
displays the agreement weights that PROC FREQ uses to compute the weighted kappa coefficient. Agreement weights reflect the relative agreement between pairs of variable levels. By default, PROC FREQ uses the CicchettiAllison form of agreement weights. If you specify the AGREE(WT=FC) option, the procedure uses the FleissCohen form of agreement weights. For more information, see the section Weighted Kappa Coefficient.
This option has no effect unless you also specify the AGREE option to compute the weighted kappa coefficient. The PRINTKWTS option is equivalent to the AGREE(PRINTKWTS) option.
requests relative risk measures for tables. These measures include the odds ratio, the column 1 relative risk, and the column 2 relative risk. For more information, see the section Odds Ratio and Relative Risks for 2 x 2 Tables. By default, PROC FREQ displays the relative risk measures and their asymptotic Wald confidence limits in the "Odds Ratio and Relative Risks" table. You can also obtain this table by specifying the MEASURES option, which produces other measures of association in addition to the relative risks.
When you specify confidence limit types in the CL= relriskoption, PROC FREQ displays the "Relative Risk Confidence Limits" table; PROC FREQ does not display the "Odds Ratio and Relative Risks" table unless you also specify the PRINTALL relriskoption. You can request the "Odds Ratio Confidence Limits" table by specifying the OR(CL=) option.
You can specify the following relriskoptions:
specifies confidence limit types for the relative risk. You can specify one or more types of confidence limits. When you specify only one type, you can omit the parentheses around the request. When you specify the CL= relriskoption, PROC FREQ displays the confidence limits in the "Relative Risk Confidence Limits" table.
(The ALPHA= option determines the level of the confidence limits that the CL= relriskoption provides. By default, ALPHA=0.05, which produces 95% confidence limits for the relative risk.)
You can specify the following types:
displays exact unconditional confidence limits for the relative risk in the "Confidence Limits for the Relative Risk" table. You must also request computation of the exact confidence limits by specifying the RELRISK option in the EXACT statement. For more information, see the section Exact Unconditional Confidence Limits for the Relative Risk.
requests score confidence limits for the relative risk. For more information, see the section Score Confidence Limits for the Relative Risk. If you specify CORRECT=NO, PROC FREQ provides the uncorrected form of the confidence limits.
requests asymptotic Wald confidence limits for the relative risk. For more information, see the section Relative Risks.
If you do not specify the CL= relriskoption, the RELRISK option displays Wald confidence limits for the odds ratio, column 1 relative risk, and column 2 relative risk in the "Odds Ratio and Relative Risks" table.
specifies the table column for which to compute the relative risk confidence limits (which you request by specifying the CL= relriskoption). By default, COLUMN=1, which displays confidence limits for the column 1 relative risk in the "Relative Risk Confidence Limits" tables. This option has no effect on the "Odds Ratio and Relative Risks" table, which displays both column 1 and column 2 relative risks.
displays the "Odds Ratio and Relative Risks" table when you specify the CL= relriskoption. (By default, PROC FREQ does not display this table when you specify the CL= relriskoption.)
requests risks (binomial proportions) and risk differences for tables. By default, this option provides the row 1 risk, row 2 risk, total (overall) risk, and risk difference (row 1 – row 2), together with their asymptotic standard errors and Wald confidence limits; by default, this option also provides exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits for the row 1, row 2, and total risks. You can request exact unconditional confidence limits for the risk difference by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement. For more information, see the section Risks and Risk Differences. PROC FREQ displays these results in the column 1 and column 2 "Risk Estimates" tables.
You can specify riskdiffoptions in parentheses after the RISKDIFF option to request tests and additional confidence limits for the risk difference, in addition to estimates of the common risk difference for multiway tables. Table 40.18 summarizes the riskdiffoptions.
The CL= riskdiffoption requests confidence limits for the risk difference. Available confidence limit types include AgrestiCaffo, exact unconditional, HauckAnderson, MiettinenNurminen (score), Newcombe, and Wald. Continuitycorrected Newcombe and Wald confidence limits are also available. You can request more than one type of confidence limits in the same analysis. PROC FREQ displays the confidence limits in the "Proportion (Risk) Difference Confidence Limits" table.
The CL=EXACT riskdiffoption displays exact unconditional confidence limits in the "Proportion (Risk) Difference Confidence Limits" table. When you specify CL=EXACT, you must also request computation of the exact confidence limits by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement.
The EQUIV , NONINF , and SUP riskdiffoptions request tests of equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority, respectively, for the risk difference. Available test methods include FarringtonManning (score), HauckAnderson, and Newcombe (hybridscore), in addition to the Wald test.
As part of the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence analyses, PROC FREQ provides nullbased equivalence limits that have a confidence coefficient of % (Schuirmann, 1999). The ALPHA= option determines the confidence level; by default, ALPHA=0.05, which produces 90% equivalence limits for these analyses. For more information, see the sections Noninferiority Tests and Equivalence Tests.
Table 40.18: RISKDIFF (Proportion Difference) Options
Option 
Description 

Specifies the risk column 

Requests common risk difference 

Requests continuity correction 

Suppresses default risk tables 

Request Confidence Limits 

Requests AgrestiCaffo confidence limits 

Displays exact confidence limits 

Requests HauckAnderson confidence limits 

Requests MiettinenNurminen confidence limits 

Requests Newcombe confidence limits 

Requests Wald confidence limits 

Request Tests 

Requests an equality test 

Requests an equivalence test 

Specifies the test margin 

Specifies the test method 

Requests a noninferiority test 

Requests a superiority test 

Specifies the test variance 
You can specify the following riskdiffoptions in parentheses after the RISKDIFF option:
requests confidence limits for the risk difference. You can specify one or more types of confidence limits. When you specify only one type, you can omit the parentheses around the request. PROC FREQ displays the confidence limits in the "Proportion (Risk) Difference Confidence Limits" table.
The ALPHA= option determines the level of the confidence limits. By default, ALPHA=0.05, which produces 95% confidence limits for the risk difference.
You can specify the CL= riskdiffoption with or without requests for risk difference tests. The confidence limits that CL= produces do not depend on the tests that you request and do not use the value of the test margin (which you can specify in the MARGIN= riskdiffoption).
You can control the risk column for the confidence limits by specifying the COLUMN= riskdiffoption. If you do not specify COLUMN=, by default PROC FREQ provides confidence limits for the column 1 risk difference.
You can specify the following types:
requests AgrestiCaffo confidence limits for the risk difference. For more information, see the subsection "AgrestiCaffo Confidence Limits" in the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits.
displays exact unconditional confidence limits for the risk difference in the "Proportion (Risk) Difference Confidence Limits" table. You must also request computation of the exact confidence limits by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement.
PROC FREQ computes the confidence limits by inverting two separate onesided exact tests (tail method). By default, the tests are based on the unstandardized risk difference. If you specify the RISKDIFF(METHOD=SCORE) option in the EXACT statement, the tests are based on the score statistic. For more information, see the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement and the section Exact Unconditional Confidence Limits for the Risk Difference.
By default, PROC FREQ also displays these exact confidence limits in the "Risk Estimates" table. You can suppress this table by specifying the NORISKS riskdiffoption.
requests HauckAnderson confidence limits for the risk difference. For more information, see the subsection "HauckAnderson Confidence Limits" in the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits.
requests MiettinenNurminen (score) confidence limits for the risk difference. For more information, see the subsection "MiettinenNurminen (Score) Confidence Limits" in the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits. By default, the MiettinenNurminen confidence limits include a bias correction factor (Miettinen and Nurminen, 1985; Newcombe and Nurminen, 2011). If you specify CL=MN(CORRECT=NO), PROC FREQ provides the uncorrected form of the confidence limits (Mee, 1984).
requests Newcombe hybridscore confidence limits for the risk difference. If you specify CL=NEWCOMBE(CORRECT) or the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Newcombe confidence limits include a continuity correction. For more information, see the subsection "Newcombe Confidence Limits" in the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits.
requests Wald confidence limits for the risk difference. If you specify CL=WALD(CORRECT) or the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Wald confidence limits include a continuity correction. For more information, see the subsection "Wald Confidence Limits" in the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits.
specifies the table column for which to compute the risk difference tests (EQUAL , EQUIV , NONINF , and SUP ) and the risk difference confidence limits (which you request by specifying the CL= riskdiffoption). By default, COLUMN=1.
This option has no effect on the "Risk Estimates" table, which is produced for both column 1 and column 2. You can suppress the "Risk Estimates" table by specifying the NORISKS riskdiffoption.
requests estimates of the common (overall) risk difference for multiway tables. PROC FREQ produces MantelHaenszel and summary score estimates for the common risk difference, together with their confidence limits. For more information, see the section Common Risk Difference. If you specify the RISKDIFF(CL=NEWCOMBE) option, PROC FREQ also provides Newcombe confidence limits for the common risk difference. For more information, see the section Common Risk Difference.
If you do not specify the COLUMN= riskdiffoption, PROC FREQ provides the common risk difference for column 1 by default. If you specify COLUMN=2, PROC FREQ provides the common risk difference for column 2. COLUMN=BOTH does not apply to the common risk difference.
includes a continuity correction in the Wald confidence limits, Wald tests, and Newcombe confidence limits. For more information, see the section Risks and Risk Differences.
requests a test of the null hypothesis that the risk difference equals zero. This option provides an asymptotic Wald test of equality. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Wald test includes a continuity correction. If you specify the VAR=NULL riskdiffoption, the test uses the nullbased variance instead of the sample variance. For more information, see the section Equality Test.
requests a test of equivalence for the risk difference. For more information, see the section Equivalence Tests. You can specify the test method in the METHOD= riskdiffoption, and you can specify the margins in the MARGIN= riskdiffoption. By default, METHOD=WALD and MARGIN=0.2.
specifies the margin for the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence tests, which you request by specifying the NONINF , SUP , and EQUIV riskdiffoptions, respectively. By default, MARGIN=0.2.
For noninferiority and superiority tests, specify a single value in the MARGIN= option. The value must be a positive number. You can specify value as a number between 0 and 1. Or you can specify value in percentage form as a number between 1 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts that number to a proportion. PROC FREQ treats the value 1 as 1%.
For an equivalence test, you can specify a single MARGIN= value, or you can specify both lower and upper values. If you specify a single value, it must be a positive number, as described previously. If you specify a single value for an equivalence test, PROC FREQ uses –value as the lower margin and value as the upper margin for the test. If you specify both lower and upper values for an equivalence test, you can specify them in proportion form as numbers between –1 or 1. Or you can specify them in percentage form as numbers between –100 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts the numbers to proportions. The value of lower must be less than the value of upper.
specifies the method for the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence analyses, which you request by specifying the NONINF , SUP , and EQUIV riskdiffoptions, respectively. By default, METHOD=WALD.
You can specify the following methods:
requests FarringtonManning (score) tests and equivalence limits for the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority analyses. For more information, see the subsection "FarringtonManning (Score) Test" in the section Noninferiority Tests.
requests HauckAnderson tests and confidence limits for the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority analyses. For more information, see the subsection "HauckAnderson Test" in the section Noninferiority Tests.
requests Newcombe (hybridscore) confidence limits for the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority analyses. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Newcombe confidence limits include a continuity correction. For more information, see the subsection "Newcombe Noninferiority Analysis" in the section Noninferiority Tests.
requests Wald tests and confidence limits for the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority analyses. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Wald tests and confidence limits include a continuity correction. If you specify the VAR=NULL riskdiffoption, the tests use the null (testbased) variance instead of the sample variance. For more information, see the subsection "Wald Test" in the section Noninferiority Tests.
requests a test of noninferiority for the risk difference. For more information, see the section Noninferiority Tests. You can specify the test method in the METHOD= riskdiffoption, and you can specify the margin in the MARGIN= riskdiffoption. By default, METHOD=WALD and MARGIN=0.2.
suppresses display of the "Risk Estimates" tables, which the RISKDIFF option produces by default for column 1 and column 2. The "Risk Estimates" tables contain the risks and risk differences, together with their asymptotic standard errors, Wald confidence limits, and exact confidence limits.
requests a test of superiority for the risk difference. For more information, see the section Superiority Test. You can specify the test method in the METHOD= riskdiffoption, and you can specify the margin in the MARGIN= riskdiffoption. By default, METHOD=WALD and MARGIN=0.2.
specifies the type of variance to use in the Wald tests of noninferiority, superiority, equivalence, and equality. If you specify VAR=SAMPLE, PROC FREQ uses the sample variance. If you specify VAR=NULL, PROC FREQ uses a testbased variance that is computed by using the null hypothesis value of the risk difference. For more information, see the sections Equality Test and Noninferiority Tests. The default is VAR=SAMPLE.
specifies the type of row and column scores that PROC FREQ uses to compute the following statistics: MantelHaenszel chisquare, Pearson correlation, CochranArmitage test for trend, weighted kappa coefficient, and CochranMantelHaenszel statistics. The value of type can be one of the following:
MODRIDIT
RANK
RIDIT
TABLE
See the section Scores for descriptions of these score types.
If you do not specify the SCORES= option, PROC FREQ uses SCORES=TABLE by default. For character variables, the row and column TABLE scores are the row and column numbers. That is, the TABLE score is 1 for row 1, 2 for row 2, and so on. For numeric variables, the row and column TABLE scores equal the variable values. See the section Scores for details. Using MODRIDIT, RANK, or RIDIT scores yields nonparametric analyses.
You can use the SCOROUT option to display the row and column scores.
displays the row and column scores that PROC FREQ uses to compute scorebased tests and statistics. You can specify the score type with the SCORES= option. See the section Scores for details.
The scores are computed and displayed only when PROC FREQ computes statistics for twoway tables. You can use ODS to store the scores in an output data set. See the section ODS Table Names for more information.
reports all possible combinations of the variable values for an nway table when n > 1, even if a combination does not occur in the data. The SPARSE option applies only to crosstabulation tables displayed in LIST format and to the OUT= output data set. If you do not use the LIST or OUT= option, the SPARSE option has no effect.
When you specify the SPARSE and LIST options, PROC FREQ displays all combinations of variable values in the table listing, including those with a frequency count of zero. By default, without the SPARSE option, PROC FREQ does not display zerofrequency levels in LIST output. When you use the SPARSE and OUT= options, PROC FREQ includes empty crosstabulation table cells in the output data set. By default, PROC FREQ does not include zerofrequency table cells in the output data set.
See the section Missing Values for more information.
displays the percentage of the total multiway table frequency in crosstabulation tables for nway tables, where n > 2. By default, PROC FREQ displays the percentage of the individual twoway table frequency but does not display the percentage of the total frequency for multiway crosstabulation tables. See the section TwoWay and Multiway Tables for more information.
The percentage of total multiway table frequency is displayed by default when you specify the LIST
option. It is also provided by default in the PERCENT
variable in the OUT=
output data set.
requests the CochranArmitage test for trend. The table must be or to compute the trend test. See the section CochranArmitage Test for Trend for details. To request exact pvalues for the trend test, specify the TREND option in the EXACT statement. See the section Exact Statistics for more information.