holds for all vectors , but only for the least squares solution is the residual orthogonal to the predicted value . Because of this orthogonality, the additive identity holds not only for the vectors themselves, but also for their lengths (Pythagorean theorem):
Note that = and note that . The matrices and play an important role in the theory of linear models and in statistical computations. Both are projection matrices—that is, they are symmetric and idempotent. (An idempotent matrix is a square matrix that satisfies . The eigenvalues of an idempotent matrix take on the values 1 and 0 only.) The matrix projects onto the subspace of that is spanned by the columns of . The matrix projects onto the orthogonal complement of that space. Because of these properties you have , , , , .
The Pythagorean relationship now can be written in terms of and as follows:
If is deficient in rank and a generalized inverse is used to solve the normal equations, then you work instead with the projection matrices . Note that if is a generalized inverse of , then , and hence also and , are invariant to the choice of .
The matrix is sometimes referred to as the “hat” matrix because when you premultiply the vector of observations with , you produce the fitted values, which are commonly denoted by placing a “hat” over the vector, .
The term is the uncorrected total sum of squares () of the linear model, is the error (residual) sum of squares (), and is the uncorrected model sum of squares. This leads to the analysis of variance table shown in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2: Analysis of Variance with Uncorrected Sums of Squares
Source 
df 
Sum of Squares 

Model 


Residual 




Uncorr. Total 
n 

When the model contains an intercept term, then the analysis of variance is usually corrected for the mean, as shown in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3: Analysis of Variance with Corrected Sums of Squares
Source 
df 
Sum of Squares 

Model 


Residual 




Corrected Total 


The coefficient of determination, also called the Rsquare statistic, measures the proportion of the total variation explained by the linear model. In models with intercept, it is defined as the ratio
In models without intercept, the Rsquare statistic is a ratio of the uncorrected sums of squares