The POWER Procedure

Sample Size Adjustment Options

By default, PROC POWER rounds sample sizes conservatively (down in the input, up in the output) so that all total sizes (and individual group sample sizes, if a multigroup design) are integers. This is generally considered conservative because it selects the closest realistic design providing at most the power of the (possibly fractional) input or mathematically optimized design. In addition, in a multigroup design, all group sizes are adjusted to be multiples of the corresponding group weights. For example, if GROUPWEIGHTS = (2 6), then all group 1 sample sizes become multiples of 2, and all group 2 sample sizes become multiples of 6 (and all total sample sizes become multiples of 8).

With the NFRACTIONAL option, sample size input is not rounded, and sample size output (whether total or groupwise) are reported in two versions, a raw fractional version and a ceiling version rounded up to the nearest integer.

Whenever an input sample size is adjusted, both the original (nominal) and adjusted (actual) sample sizes are reported. Whenever computed output sample sizes are adjusted, both the original input (nominal) power and the achieved (actual) power at the adjusted sample size are reported.