
ALPHA=

requests that confidence limits be constructed with confidence level , where . The default is ALPHA=0.05. These confidence limits include confidence limits for the stratumspecific rates or risks, standardized
rate and risk, standardized morbidity/mortality ratio, and population attributable rate and risk.

CL=GAMMA <(TYPE=AVERAGE  CONSERVATIVE)>  LOGNORMAL  NONE  NORMAL  POISSON

specifies the method to construct confidence limits for SMR and standardized rate and risk. You can specify the following
values for this option:

GAMMA

requests confidence limits based on a gamma distribution for METHOD=DIRECT and METHOD=MH. This value applies only when STAT=RATE.
You can specify the TYPE=CONSERVATIVE suboption to request conservative confidence limits that are based on a gamma distribution
and were developed by Fay and Feuer (1997), or you can use the default TYPE=AVERAGE suboption to request modified confidence limits proposed by Tiwari, Clegg, and
Zou (2006).

LOGNORMAL

requests confidence limits based on a lognormal distribution.

NONE

suppresses construction of confidence limits.

NORMAL

requests confidence limits based on a normal distribution.

POISSON

requests confidence limits based on a Poisson distribution. This value applies only when METHOD=INDIRECT.
The default is CL=NORMAL.

DATA=SASdataset

names the required SAS data set that contains the event information in the study populations.

EFFECT <=DIFF  RATIO>

displays a table of the effect estimate and associated confidence limits. This option applies only when METHOD=DIRECT with
two study populations and when METHOD=MH, where two study populations are required.
EFFECT and EFFECT=RATIO display a test on the ratio effect of estimates between the study populations, and the EFFECT=DIFF
option displays a test on the difference effect.

METHOD= DIRECT  INDIRECT <(AF)>  MH <(AF)>
M= DIRECT  INDIRECT <(AF)>  MH <(AF)>

specifies the required method for standardization. The AF suboption (available only for METHOD=INDIRECT or METHOD=MH) requests
the attributable fraction, which measures how much of the excess event rate or risk fraction in the exposed population is
attributable to the exposure. This suboption also requests the population attributable fraction, which measures how much of
the excess event rate or risk fraction in the total population is attributable to the exposure.
You can specify the following values:
 DIRECT

requests direct standardization.
 INDIRECT

requests indirect standardization. If you specify the AF suboption, the study population is treated as the exposed population
and the reference population is treated as the unexposed population.
 MH

requests MandelHaenszel estimation. The order of the two study populations is indicated by the ORDER= suboption in the GROUP
option in the POPULATION statement. If you specify the AF suboption, the exposed population is identified by the EXPOSED=
suboption in the GROUP option in the POPULATION statement. If the EXPOSED= suboption is not specified, then the first study
population is treated as the exposed population and the second study population is treated as the unexposed population.

PLOTS <( globaloptions )> <= plotrequest>
PLOTS <( globaloptions )> <= ( plotrequest < …plotrequest> ) >

specifies options that control the details of the plots. The default is PLOTS=RATE for STAT=RATE and PLOTS=RISK for STAT=RISK.
You can specify the following globaloptions:

DISPLAY=INDEX  LEVEL

specifies tick mark values for the strata axis. DISPLAY=LEVEL displays strata levels on the strata axis, and DISPLAY=INDEX
displays strata indices of sequential strata identification numbers on the strata axis. The default is DISPLAY=LEVEL.

ONLY

suppresses the default plots and displays only plots that are specifically requested.

STRATUM=HORIZONTAL  VERTICAL

controls the orientation of the plots. STRATUM=VERTICAL places the strata information on the vertical axis, and STRATUM=HORIZONTAL
places the strata information on the horizontal axis. The default is STRATUM=VERTICAL.
You can specify the following plotrequests:

ALL

produces all appropriate plots.

DIST  DISTRIBUTION

displays a plot of the proportions for stratumspecific exposed time or sample size.

EFFECT

displays a plot of the stratumspecific effect estimates and associated confidence limits. This option applies only when METHOD=DIRECT
with two study populations and when METHOD=MH, where two study populations are required. If the EFFECT=DIFF option is specified,
the stratumspecific rate or risk difference effects are displayed. Otherwise, the stratumspecific rate or risk ratio effects
are displayed.

NONE

suppresses all plots.

RATE

displays a plot of the stratumspecific rates and associated confidence limits. This option applies only when STAT=RATE. If
a confidence limits method is specified in the STATS(CL=) option in the STRATA statement, that method is used to compute the
confidence limits. Otherwise, the normal approximation is used.

RISK

displays a plot of the stratumspecific risks and associated confidence limits. This option applies only when STAT=RISK. If
a confidence limits method is specified in the STATS(CL=) option in the STRATA statement, that method is used to compute the
confidence limits. Otherwise, the normal approximation is used.

SMR

displays a plot of the stratumspecific SMR estimates and associated confidence limits. This option applies only when METHOD=INDIRECT.
If a method is specified in the SMR(CL=) option in the STRATA statement, that method is used to compute the confidence limits.
Otherwise, the normal approximation is used.

REFDATA=SASdataset

names the required SAS data set that contains the event information in the reference population.

STAT=RATE <( MULT =c )>
STAT=RISK

specifies the statistic for standardization. STAT=RATE computes standardized rates, and STAT=RISK computes standardized risks.
The default is STAT=RATE.
The MULT= suboption in the STAT=RATE option specifies a power of 10 constant c, and requests that rates per c populationtime units be displayed in the output tables and graphics. The default is MULT=100000, which specifies rates per
100,000 populationtime units.