
ALPHA=number

requests that a ttype confidence interval be constructed for each of the fixedeffects parameters with confidence level . The value of number must be between 0 and 1; the default is 0.05.

CL

requests that ttype confidence limits be constructed for each of the fixedeffects parameter estimates. The confidence level is 0.95 by
default; this can be changed with the ALPHA=
option.

DDF=valuelist

enables you to specify your own denominator degrees of freedom for the fixed effects. The valuelist specification is a list of numbers or missing values (.) separated by commas. The degrees of freedom should be listed in
the order in which the effects appear in the "Type III Tests of Fixed Effects" table. If you want to retain the default degrees
of freedom for a particular effect, use a missing value for its location in the list. For example, the following statement
assigns 3 denominator degrees of freedom to A
and 4.7 to A
*B
, while those for B
remain the same:
model Y = A B A*B / ddf=3,.,4.7;

DDFM=RESIDUAL  NONE

specifies the method for computing the denominator degrees of freedom for the tests of fixed effects resulting from the MODEL,
CONTRAST
, ESTIMATE
, LSMEANS
, and TEST
statements.
The DDFM=RESIDUAL option performs all tests by using the residual degrees of freedom, , where n is the number of observations used. It is the default degrees of freedom method.
DDFM=NONE specifies that no denominator degrees of freedom be applied. PROC HPMIXED then essentially assumes that infinite
degrees of freedom are available in the calculation of pvalues. The pvalues for t tests are then identical to pvalues derived from the standard normal distribution. In the case of F tests, the pvalues equal those of chisquare tests determined as follows: if is the observed value of the F test with l numerator degrees of freedom, then

NOINT

requests that no intercept be included in the model. An intercept is included by default.

SOLUTION  S

requests that a solution for the fixedeffects parameters be produced. Using notation from the section Model Assumptions, the fixedeffects parameter estimates are and their approximate standard errors are the square roots of the diagonal elements of .
Along with the estimates and their approximate standard errors, a t statistic is computed as the estimate divided by its standard error. The degree of freedom for this t statistic matches the one appearing in the "Type III Tests of Fixed Effects" table under the effect containing the parameter.
The "Pr > t" column contains the twotailed pvalue corresponding to the t statistic and associated degrees of freedom.

ZETA=number

tunes the sensitivity in forming Type III functions. Any element in the estimable function basis with an absolute value less
than number is set to 0. The default is 1E–8.