
DATA=SASdataset

specifies a SAS data set that contains the x and y coordinate variables and the VAR statement variables.

IDGLOBAL

specifies that ascending observation numbers be used across BY groups for the observation labels in the appropriate output data sets and the OBSERVATIONS
plot, instead of resetting the observation number in the beginning of each BY group. The IDGLOBAL option is ignored if no
BY variables are specified. Also, if you specify the ID
statement, then the IDGLOBAL option is ignored unless you also specify the IDNUM option in the PROC VARIOGRAM
statement.

IDNUM

specifies that the observation number be used for the observation labels in the appropriate output data sets and the OBSERVATIONS
plot. The IDNUM option takes effect when you specify the ID
statement; otherwise, it is ignored.

NOPRINT

suppresses the normal display of results. The NOPRINT option is useful when you want only to create one or more output data sets with the procedure.
Note: This option temporarily disables the Output Delivery System (ODS); see the section ODS Graphics for more information.

OUTACWEIGHTS=SASdataset
OUTACW=SASdataset
OUTA=SASdataset

specifies a SAS data set in which to store the autocorrelation weights information for each pair of points in the DATA= data set. Use this option with caution when the DATA=
data set is large. If n denotes the number of observations in the DATA= data set, then the OUTACWEIGHTS= data set contains observations.
See the section OUTACWEIGHTS=SASdataset for details.

OUTDISTANCE=SASdataset
OUTDIST=SASdataset
OUTD=SASdataset

specifies a SAS data set in which to store summary distance information. This data set contains a count of all pairs of data points within a given distance interval. The number of distance
intervals is controlled by the NHCLASSES=
option in the COMPUTE
statement. The OUTDISTANCE= data set is useful for plotting modified histograms of the count data for determining appropriate
lag distances. See the section OUTDIST=SASdataset for details.

OUTMORAN=SASdataset
OUTM=SASdataset

specifies a SAS data set in which to store information that is illustrated in the Moran plot, namely the standardized value of each observation in the DATA= data set and the weighted average of its
local neighbors. You must also specify the LAGDISTANCE=
and AUTOCORRELATION
options in the COMPUTE
statement; otherwise, the OUTMORAN= data set request is ignored.
The OUTMORAN= data set is useful when you want to save the information that is illustrated in the Moran scatter plot. The
data set can also contain entries of missing observations with neighbors, although these observations are not displayed in
the Moran plot. However, if the only observations with neighbors in your input data set are observations with missing values,
then the OUTMORAN= output data set is empty.
See the section OUTMORAN=SASdataset for details.

OUTPAIR=SASdataset
OUTP=SASdataset

specifies a SAS data set in which to store distance and angle information for each pair of points in the DATA= data set.
Use this option with caution when your DATA= data set is large. Assume that your DATA= data set has n observations. When you specify the NOVARIOGRAM
option in the COMPUTE
statement, the OUTPAIR= data set is populated with all pairs that can be formed with the n observations.
If the NOVARIOGRAM
option is not specified, then the OUTPAIR= data set contains only pairs of data that are located within a certain distance
away from each other. Specifically, it contains pairs whose distance between observations belongs to a lag class up to the
specified MAXLAGS=
option in the COMPUTE
statement. Then, depending on your specification of the LAGDISTANCE=
and MAXLAGS=
options, the OUTPAIR= data set might contain or fewer pairs.
Finally, you can restrict the number of pairs in the OUTPAIR= data set with the OUTPDISTANCE=
option in the COMPUTE
statement. The OUTPDISTANCE=
option in the COMPUTE
statement excludes pairs of points when the distance between the pairs exceeds the OUTPDISTANCE=
value.
See the section OUTPAIR=SASdataset for details.

OUTVAR=SASdataset
OUTVR=SASdataset

specifies a SAS data set in which to store the continuity measures.
See the section OUTVAR=SASdataset for details.

PLOTS <(globalplotoptions)> <= plotrequest<(options)>>
PLOTS <(globalplotoptions)> <= (plotrequest<(options)> <... plotrequest<(options)>>)>

controls the plots produced through ODS Graphics. When you specify only one plot request, you can omit the parentheses around the plot request. Here are some examples:
plots=none
plots=observ
plots=(observ semivar)
plots(unpack)=semivar
plots=(semivar(cla unpack) semivar semivar(rob))
ODS Graphics must be enabled before plots can be requested. For example:
ods graphics on;
proc variogram data=sashelp.thick;
compute novariogram;
coordinates xc=East yc=North;
var Thick;
run;
ods graphics off;
For more information about enabling and disabling ODS Graphics, see the section Enabling and Disabling ODS Graphics in Chapter 21: Statistical Graphics Using ODS.
If ODS Graphics is enabled but you omit the PLOTS option or have specified PLOTS=ALL, then PROC VARIOGRAM produces a default
set of plots, which might be different for different COMPUTE
statement options, as discussed in the following.

If you specify NOVARIOGRAM
in the COMPUTE
statement, the VARIOGRAM procedure produces a scatter plot of your observations spatial distribution, in addition to the
histogram of the pairwise distances of your data. For an example of the observations plot, see Figure 109.2. For an example of the pairwise distances plot, see Figure 109.4.

If you omit NOVARIOGRAM
in the COMPUTE
statement, the VARIOGRAM procedure computes the empirical semivariogram for the specified LAGDISTANCE=
and MAXLAGS=
options. The observations plot appears by default in this case too. The VARIOGRAM procedure also produces a plot of the classical
empirical semivariogram. If you also specify ROBUST
in the COMPUTE
statement, then the VARIOGRAM procedure instead produces a plot of both the classical and robust empirical semivariograms,
in addition to the observations plot. For an example of the empirical semivariogram plot, see Figure 109.7. Moreover, if you specify the MODEL
statement and perform model fitting, then PROC VARIOGRAM also produces a fit plot of the fitted semivariogram. An example
of the fit plot is shown in Figure 109.16.
The following globalplotoptions are available:

ONLY

suppresses the default plots. Only plots that are specifically requested are displayed.

UNPACKPANEL
UNPACK

suppresses paneling. By default, multiple plots can appear in some output panels. Specify UNPACKPANEL to get each plot in
a separate panel. You can specify PLOTS(UNPACKPANEL) to unpack the default plots. You can also specify UNPACKPANEL as a suboption
with the SEMIVAR option.
The following individual plotrequests and plot options are available:

ALL

produces all appropriate plots. You can specify other options with ALL. For example, to request all default plots and an additional classical empirical semivariogram, specify PLOTS=(ALL
SEMIVAR(CLA)).

EQUATE

specifies that all appropriate plots be produced in a way that the coordinates of the axes have equal size units.

FITPLOT <(fitplotoptions)>
FIT <(fitplotoptions)>

requests a plot that shows the model fitting results against the empirical semivariogram. By default, FITPLOT displays one
plot of the fitted model (or a panel of plots for different angles in the anisotropic case).
If you specify the FORM=AUTO
option in the MODEL
statement, then each class of equivalent fitted models is displayed with a different curve on the plot. The best fitting
model class is chosen based on the criteria that you specify in the CHOOSE
option of the MODEL
statement, and a thicker line on top of any other curve is shown for it. The plot legend shows the ranked classes by displaying
the label of the representative model of each class in the plot. If appropriate, the number of additional models in the same
equivalence class also shows within parentheses.
You can specify the following fitplotoptions:

NCLASSES=number
NCLASSES=ALL

specifies the maximum number of classes to display on the fit plot, where number is a positive integer. The default is NCLASSES=5 for nonpaneled plots and NCLASSES=3 for paneled plots. The option takes
effect when you specify the FORM=AUTO
option in the MODEL
statement, and it is ignored when you fit one single model. If you specify NCLASSES=ALL or a larger number than the available
classes, then all available classes are shown on the fit plot. If you specify multiple instances of the NCLASSES= option,
then only the last specified instance is honored.

UNPACK

suppresses paneling in paneled fit plots. By default, fit plots appear in a panel, when appropriate.

MORAN <(moranoptions)>
MOR <(moranoptions)>

produces a Moran scatter plot of the observations with nonmissing values. For more details about this plot, see the section
The Moran Scatter Plot. In addition to the Moran scatter plot points, the plot also displays the fit line for the linear regression of the weighted
average on the standardized observation values, the regression fit line slope, and a reference line with slope equal to 1.
The MORAN plot has the following moranoptions:

LABEL < ( labeloptions ) >

labels the observations. The label is the ID variable if the ID
statement is specified; otherwise, it is the observation number. The labeloptions can be one or more of the following:

HH

specifies that labels show for observations in the upper right (highhigh) plot quadrant of positive spatial association.

HL

specifies that labels show for observations in the lower right (highlow) plot quadrant of negative spatial association.

LH

specifies that labels show for observations in the upper left (lowhigh) plot quadrant of negative spatial association.

LL

specifies that labels show for observations in the lower left (lowlow) plot quadrant of positive spatial association.
If you specify multiple instances of the MORAN option and you specify the LABEL suboption in any of those, then the resulting
Moran scatter plot displays the observations labels. By default, when you specify none of the labeloptions, the PLOTS=MORAN(LABEL) request puts labels in all observations.

ROWAVG=rowavgoption

specifies the flag value for rowaveraging of weights in the computation of the weighted average. The rowavgoption can be either of the following:

OFF

specifies that autocorrelation weights not be rowaveraged.

ON

specifies that rowaveraged autocorrelation weights be used.
The default behavior is ROWAVG=ON. If you specify the ROWAVG= option more than once in the same MORAN plot request, then
the behavior is set to ROWAVG=ON unless any of the instances is ROWAVG=OFF.
When you specify the PLOTS=MORAN option, you must specify both the AUTOCORRELATION
and the LAGDISTANCE=
options in the COMPUTE
statement to produce the Moran scatter plot. For more information about the plot, see the section The Moran Scatter Plot.

NONE

suppresses all plots.

OBSERVATIONS <(observationsplotoptions)>
OBSERV <(observationsplotoptions)>
OBS <(observationsplotoptions)>

produces the observed data plot. Only one observations plot is created if you specify the OBSERVATIONS option more than once
within a PLOTS option.
The OBSERVATIONS option has the following suboptions:

GRADIENT

specifies that observations be displayed as circles colored by the observed measurement.

LABEL < ( labeloption ) >

labels the observations. The label is the ID variable if the ID
statement is specified; otherwise, it is the observation number. The labeloption can be one of the following:

EQ=number

specifies that labels show for any observation whose value is equal to the specified number.

MAX=number

specifies that labels show for observations with values smaller than or equal to the specified number.

MIN=number

specifies that labels show for observations with values equal to or greater than the specified number.
If you specify multiple instances of the OBSERVATIONS option and you specify the LABEL suboption in any of those, then the
resulting observations plot displays the observations labels. If more than one labeloption is specified in multiple LABEL suboptions, then the prevailing labeloption in the resulting OBSERVATIONS plot emerges by adhering to the choosing order: MIN, MAX, EQ.

OUTLINE

specifies that observations be displayed as circles with a border but with a completely transparent fill.

OUTLINEGRADIENT

is the same as OBSERVATIONS(GRADIENT) except that a border is shown around each observation.

SHOWMISSING

specifies that observations with missing values be displayed in addition to the observations with nonmissing values. By default,
missing values locations are not shown on the plot. If you specify multiple instances of the OBSERVATIONS option and you specify
the SHOWMISSING suboption in any of those, then the resulting observations plot displays the observations with missing values.
If you omit any of the GRADIENT, OUTLINE, and OUTLINEGRADIENT suboptions, the OUTLINEGRADIENT is the default suboption. If
you specify multiple instances of the OBSERVATIONS option or multiple suboptions for OBSERVATIONS, then the resulting observations
plot honors the last specified GRADIENT, OUTLINE, or OUTLINEGRADIENT suboption.

PAIRS <(pairsplotoptions)>

specifies that the pairwise distances histogram be produced. By default, the horizontal axis displays the lag class number.
The vertical axis shows the frequency (count) of pairs in the lag classes. Notice that the zero lag class width is half the
width of the other classes.
The PAIRS option has the following suboptions:

MIDPOINT
MID

specifies that the plot that is created with the PAIRS option display the lag class midpoint value on the horizontal axis,
rather than the default lag class number. The midpoint value is the actual distance of a lag class center from the assumed
origin point at distance zero. See also the illustration in Figure 109.22.

NOINSET
NOI

specifies that the plot created with the PAIRS option be produced without the default inset that provides additional information
about the pairs distribution.

THRESHOLD=minimum pairs
THR=minimum pairs

specifies that a reference line appear in the plot that is created with the PAIRS option to indicate the minimum pairs frequency of data pairs. You can use this line as an exploratory tool when you want to select lag classes that contain at
least THRESHOLD point pairs. The option helps you to identify visually any portion of the PAIRS distribution that lies below
the specified THRESHOLD value.
Only one pairwise distances histogram is created if you specify the PAIRS option within a PLOTS option. If you specify multiple
instances of the PAIRS option, the resulting plot has the following features:

If the MIDPOINT or NOINSET suboption has been specified in any of the instances, it is activated in the resulting plot.

If you have specified the THRESHOLD= suboption more than once, then the THRESHOLD= value specified last prevails.

SEMIVARIOGRAM <(semivarplotoptions)>
SEMIVAR <(semivarplotoptions)>

specifies that the empirical semivariogram plot be produced. You can specify the SEMIVAR option multiple times in the same
PLOTS option to request instances of plots with the following semivarplotoptions:

ALL  CLASSICAL  ROBUST
ALL  CLA  ROB

specifies a single type of empirical semivariogram (classical or robust) to plot, or specifies that all the available types
be included in the same plot. The default is ALL.

UNPACKPANEL
UNPACK

specifies that paneled semivariogram plots be displayed separately. By default, plots appear in a panel, when appropriate.