
ALL

is equivalent to specifying the OBSERVED, RP, CP, CELLCHI2, EXPECTED, and DEVIATION options. Specifying the ALL option does
not affect the PRINT= option. Therefore, only frequencies (not percentages) for these options are displayed unless you specify
otherwise with the PRINT= option.

BENZECRI
BEN

displays adjusted inertias when you are performing multiple correspondence analysis. By default, unadjusted inertias (the
usual inertias from multiple correspondence analysis) are displayed. However, adjusted inertias that use a method proposed
by Benzécri (1979) and described by Greenacre (1984, p. 145) can be displayed by specifying the BENZECRI option. Specify the UNADJUSTED option to output the usual table of unadjusted
inertias as well. For more information, see the section MCA Adjusted Inertias.

BINARY

enables you to create binary tables easily. When you specify the BINARY option, specify only column variables in the TABLES
statement. Each input data set observation forms a single row in the constructed table.

CELLCHI2
CEL

displays the contribution to the total chisquare test statistic for each cell. See also the descriptions of the DEVIATION,
EXPECTED, and OBSERVED options.

CHI2P
CHI

displays the chisquare pvalue in the inertia and chisquare decomposition table. The chisquare pvalue is not displayed by default because in many cases the table being analyzed is not a true twoway contingency table.

COLUMN=B  BD  DB  DBD  DBD1/2  DBID1/2
COL=B  BD  DB  DBD  DBD1/2  DBID1/2

provides other standardizations of the column coordinates. The COLUMN= option is rarely needed. Typically, you should use
the PROFILE= option instead (see the section The PROFILE=, ROW=, and COLUMN= Options). By default, COLUMN=DBD.

CP

displays the column profile matrix. Column profiles contain the observed conditional probabilities of row membership given
column membership. See also the RP option.

CROSS=BOTH  COLUMN  NONE  ROW
CRO=BOT  COL  NON  ROW

specifies the method of crossing (factorially combining) the levels of the TABLES variables. The default is CROSS=NONE.
 NONE

causes each level of every row variable to become a row label and each level of every column variable to become a column label.
 ROW

causes each combination of levels for all row variables to become a row label, whereas each level of every column variable
becomes a column label.
 COLUMN

causes each combination of levels for all column variables to become a column label, whereas each level of every row variable
becomes a row label.
 BOTH

causes each combination of levels for all row variables to become a row label and each combination of levels for all column
variables to become a column label.
The section TABLES Statement provides a more detailed description of this option.

DATA=SASdataset

specifies the SAS data set to be used by PROC CORRESP. If you do not specify the DATA= option, PROC CORRESP uses the most
recently created SAS data set.

DEVIATION
DEV

displays the matrix of deviations between the observed frequency matrix and the product of its row marginals and column marginals
divided by its grand frequency. For ordinary twoway contingency tables, these are the observed minus expected frequencies
under the hypothesis of row and column independence and are components of the chisquare test statistic. See also the CELLCHI2,
EXPECTED, and OBSERVED options.

DIMENS=n
DIM=n

specifies the number of dimensions or axes to use. The default is DIMENS=2. The maximum value of the DIMENS= option in an
table is or , whichever is smaller. For example, in a table with 4 rows and 5 columns, the maximum specification is DIMENS=3. If your
table has 2 rows or 2 columns, specify DIMENS=1.

EXPECTED
EXP

displays the product of the row marginals and the column marginals divided by the grand frequency of the observed frequency
table. For ordinary twoway contingency tables, these are the expected frequencies under the hypothesis of row and column
independence and are components of the chisquare test statistic. In other situations, this interpretation is not strictly
valid. See also the CELLCHI2, DEVIATION, and OBSERVED options.

FREQOUT
FRE

indicates that the PROC CORRESP input data set has the same form as an output data set from the FREQ procedure, even if it
was not directly produced by PROC FREQ. The FREQOUT option enables PROC CORRESP to take shortcuts in constructing the contingency
table.
When you specify the FREQOUT option, you must also specify a WEIGHT statement. The cell frequencies in a PROC FREQ output
data set are contained in a variable called COUNT
, so specify COUNT
in a WEIGHT statement with PROC CORRESP. The FREQOUT option might produce unexpected results if the DATA= data set is structured
incorrectly. Each of the two variable lists specified in the TABLES statement must consist of a single variable, and observations
must be grouped by the levels of the row variable and then by the levels of the column variable. It is not required that the
observations be sorted by the row variable and column variable, but they must be grouped consistently. There must be as many
observations in the input data set (or BY group) as there are cells in the completed contingency table. Zero cells must be
specified with zero weights. When you use PROC FREQ to create the PROC CORRESP input data set, you must specify the SPARSE
option in the FREQ procedure’s TABLES statement so that the zero cells are written to the output data set.

GREENACRE
GRE

displays adjusted inertias when you are performing multiple correspondence analysis. By default, unadjusted inertias (the
usual inertias from multiple correspondence analysis) are displayed. However, adjusted inertias that use a method proposed
by Greenacre (1984, p. 156) can be displayed by specifying the GREENACRE option. Specify the UNADJUSTED option to output the usual table of
unadjusted inertias as well. For more information, see the section MCA Adjusted Inertias.

INERTIATABLE
INE

displays the inertia and chisquare decomposition table in addition to the inertia and chisquare decomposition chart when
ODS Graphics is enabled. This table is produced by default when ODS Graphics is not enabled or when the chart is not produced.
When ODS Graphics is enabled:

By default, the chart is produced and the table is not produced.

Specify the PLOTS(ONLY)=CONFIGURATION option to produce the table but not the chart.

Specify the INERTIATABLE option if you want to see the table in addition to the chart.^{[25]}

MCA

requests a multiple correspondence analysis. This option requires that the input table be a Burt table, which is a symmetric
matrix of crosstabulations among several categorical variables. If you specify the MCA option and a VAR statement, you must
also specify the NVARS= option, which gives the number of categorical variables that were used to create the table. With raw
categorical data, if you want results for the individuals as well as the categories, use the BINARY option instead.

MININERTIA=n
MIN=n

specifies the minimum inertia used to create the "best" tables—the indicator of which points best explain the inertia of each dimension. By default, MININERTIA=0.8.
For more information, see the section Algorithm and Notation.

MISSING
MIS

specifies that observations with missing values for the TABLES statement variables are included in the analysis. Missing values
are treated as a distinct level of each categorical variable. By default, observations with missing values are excluded from
the analysis.

NOCOLUMN <= BOTH  DATA  PRINT>
NOC <= BOT  DAT  PRI>

suppresses the display of the column coordinates and statistics and omits them from the output coordinate data set.
 BOTH

suppresses all column information from both the SAS listing and the output data set. The NOCOLUMN option is equivalent to
the option NOCOLUMN=BOTH.
 DATA

suppresses all column information from the output data set.
 PRINT

suppresses all column information from the SAS listing.

NOPRINT
NOP

suppresses the display of all output. This option is useful when you need only an output data set. This option disables the
Output Delivery System (ODS), including ODS Graphics, for the duration of the PROC. For more information, see Chapter 20: Using the Output Delivery System.

NOROW <= BOTH  DATA  PRINT>
NOR <= BOT  DAT  PRI>

suppresses the display of the row coordinates and statistics and omits them from the output coordinate data set.
 BOTH

suppresses all row information from both the SAS listing and the output data set. The NOROW option is equivalent to the option
NOROW=BOTH.
 DATA

suppresses all row information from the output data set.
 PRINT

suppresses all row information from the SAS listing.
The NOROW option can be useful when the rows of the contingency table are replications.

NVARS=n
NVA=n

specifies the number of classification variables that were used to create the Burt table. For example, suppose the Burt table
was originally created with the following statement:
tables a b c;
You must specify NVARS=3 to read the table with a VAR statement.
The NVARS= option is required when you specify both the MCA option and a VAR statement. (See the section VAR Statement for an example.)

OBSERVED
OBS

displays the contingency table of observed frequencies and its row, column, and grand totals. If you do not specify the OBSERVED
or ALL option, the contingency table is not displayed.

OUTC=SASdataset
OUT=SASdataset

creates an output coordinate SAS data set to contain the row, column, supplementary observation, and supplementary variable
coordinates. This data set also contains the masses, squared cosines, quality of each point’s representation in the DIMENS=n dimensional display, relative inertias, partial contributions to inertia, and best indicators.

OUTF=SASdataset

creates an output frequency SAS data set to contain the contingency table, row, and column profiles, the expected values,
and the observed minus expected values and contributions to the chisquare statistic.

PLOTS <(globalplotoptions)> <=plotrequest <(options)>>
PLOTS <(globalplotoptions)> <=(plotrequest <(options)> <... plotrequest <(options)>>)>

specifies options that control the details of the plots. When you specify only one plot request, you can omit the parentheses
around the plot request.
ODS Graphics must be enabled before plots can be requested. For example:
ods graphics on;
proc corresp;
tables Marital, Origin;
run;
ods graphics off;
For more information about enabling and disabling ODS Graphics, see the section Enabling and Disabling ODS Graphics in Chapter 21: Statistical Graphics Using ODS.
By default, for simple correspondence analysis, PROC CORRESP prints the configuration of points consisting of the row coordinates
and column coordinates. With MCA, only column coordinates are printed. The default plots (y * x) are Dim2
* Dim1
, Dim3
* Dim1
, Dim3
* Dim2
, and so on. When you specify PLOTS(FLIP), the plots are Dim1
* Dim2
, Dim1
* Dim3
, Dim2
* Dim3
, and so on.
The globalplotoptions are as follows:

FLIP
FLI

flips or interchanges the Xaxis and Yaxis dimensions.

ONLY
ONL

suppresses the default plots. Only plots that are specifically requested are displayed.

SOURCE
SOU

displays the levels that correspond to each TABLES statement variable in the same color and shows the source of each group
of levels. This option is most useful with multiple correspondence analysis. For example, if Sex
and Age
are TABLES statement variables, then when you specify SOURCE, Male
and Female
are displayed in one color, and Old
and Young
are displayed in a different color. By default, color groups correspond to rows, supplementary rows, columns, and supplementary
columns.
The plotrequests include the following:

ALL

produces all appropriate plots.

CONFIGURATION
CONFIG
CON

produces the configuration plot. This plot is produced when ODS Graphics is enabled unless you specify PLOTS(ONLY)=INERTIA.

INERTIA <( inertiaoptions )>
INE<( inertiaoptions )>

requests an inertia decomposition chart and specifies inertiaoptions. An inertia decomposition chart is created when ODS Graphics is enabled unless you specify PLOTS(ONLY)=CONFIGURATION.
Unlike most graphs, the height of the inertia decomposition chart can vary as a function of the number of dimensions that
appear in the chart. You can specify the following inertiaoptions to control the height of the inertia decomposition chart:

COMPUTEHEIGHT=a b <max>
CH=a b <max>

specifies the constants for computing the height of the inertia decomposition chart. For n dimensions, intercept a, slope b, and maximum height max, the height is min(a + b (n + 1), max). By default, COMPUTEHEIGHT=130 15 1200. Thus, the default height in pixels is min(130 + 15(n + 1), 1200). The default unit is pixels, and you can use the UNIT= inertiaoption to change the unit to inches or centimeters.

SETHEIGHT=height
SH=height

specifies the height of the inertia decomposition chart. By default, the height is based on the COMPUTEHEIGHT= option. The
default unit is pixels, and you can use the UNIT= inertiaoption to change the unit to inches or centimeters.

UNIT=PX  IN  CM

specifies the unit (pixels, inches, or centimeters) for the SETHEIGHT= and COMPUTEHEIGHT= inertiaoptions. Inches equals pixels divided by 96, and centimeters equals inches times 2.54. By default, UNIT=PX.

NONE
NON

suppresses all plots.

PRINT=BOTH  FREQ  PERCENT
PRI=BOT  FRE  PER

affects the OBSERVED, RP, CP, CELLCHI2, EXPECTED, and DEVIATION options. The default is PRINT=FREQ.

The PRINT=FREQ option displays output in the appropriate raw or natural units. (That is, PROC CORRESP displays raw frequencies
for the OBSERVED option, relative frequencies with row marginals of 1.0 for the RP option, and so on.)

The PRINT=PERCENT option scales results to percentages for the display of the output. (All elements in the OBSERVED matrix
sum to 100.0, the row marginals are 100.0 for the RP option, and so on.)

The PRINT=BOTH option displays both percentages and frequencies.

PROFILE=BOTH  COLUMN  NONE  ROW
PRO=BOT  COL  NON  ROW

specifies the standardization for the row and column coordinates. The default is PROFILE=BOTH.
 BOTH

specifies a standard correspondence analysis, which jointly displays the principal row and column coordinates. Row coordinates
are computed from the row profile matrix, and column coordinates are computed from the column profile matrix.
 ROW

specifies a correspondence analysis of the row profile matrix. The row coordinates are weighted centroids of the column coordinates.
 COLUMN

specifies a correspondence analysis of the column profile matrix. The column coordinates are weighted centroids of the row
coordinates.
 NONE

is rarely needed. Row and column coordinates are the generalized singular vectors, without the customary standardizations.

ROW=A  AD  DA  DAD  DAD1/2  DAID1/2

provides other standardizations of the row coordinates. The ROW= option is rarely needed. Typically, you should use the PROFILE=
option instead (see the section The PROFILE=, ROW=, and COLUMN= Options). By default, ROW=DAD.

RP

displays the row profile matrix. Row profiles contain the observed conditional probabilities of column membership given row
membership. See also the CP option.

SHORT
SHO

suppresses the display of all point and coordinate statistics except the coordinates. The following information is suppressed:
each point’s mass, relative contribution to the total inertia, and quality of representation in the DIMENS=n dimensional display; the squared cosines of the angles between each axis and a vector from the origin to the point; the partial
contributions of each point to the inertia of each dimension; and the best indicators.

SINGULAR=n
SIN=n

specifies the largest value that is considered to be within rounding error of zero. The default value is 1E–8. This parameter
is used in checking for zero rows and columns, in checking Burt table diagonal sums for equality, in checking denominators
before dividing, and so on. Typically, you should not assign a value outside the range 1E–6 to 1E–12.

SOURCE
SOU

adds the variable _VAR_
, which contains the name or label of the variable corresponding to the current level, to the OUTC= and OUTF= data sets.

UNADJUSTED
UNA

displays unadjusted inertias when you are performing multiple correspondence analysis. By default, unadjusted inertias (the
usual inertias from multiple correspondence analysis) are displayed. However, if adjusted inertias are requested by either
the GREENACRE option or the BENZECRI option, then the unadjusted inertia table is not displayed unless the UNADJUSTED option
is specified.^{[26]} For more information, see the section MCA Adjusted Inertias.