For each design, the SEQDESIGN procedure displays the “Design Information,” “Method Information,” and “Boundary Information” tables by default.
The “Boundary Information” table displays the following information at each stage:
proportion of information
actual information level, if the maximum information is either specified or derived
alternative references with the specified statistic scale. If a p-value scale is specified, the standardized Z scale is used.
boundary values with the specified statistic scale to reject or accept the null hypothesis
Note that implicitly, the boundary information table also contains variables for the boundary scale, stopping criterion, and
type of alternative hypothesis. That is, if an ODS statement is used to save the table, the data set also contains the variables
_Scale_
for the boundary scale, _Stop_
for the stopping criterion, and _ALT_
for the type of alternative hypothesis.
The “Design Information” table displays the design specifications and derived statistics. The derived Max Information (Percent Fixed-Sample) is the maximum information for the sequential design in percentage of the corresponding fixed-sample information.
The Null Ref ASN (Percent Fixed-Sample) is the average sample number (expected sample size for nonsurvival data or expected number of events for survival data) required under the null hypothesis for the group sequential design in percentage of the corresponding fixed-sample design. Similarly, the Alt Ref ASN (Percent Fixed-Sample) is the average sample number required under the alternative reference for the group sequential design in percentage of the corresponding fixed-sample design.
If both the maximum information (MAXINFO= option) and the alternative reference (ALTREF= option) are specified, then either the ALPHA= option is used to derive the Type II error probability (BOUNDARYKEY=ALPHA) or the BETA= option is used to derive the Type I error probability (BOUNDARYKEY=BETA).
The “Error Spending Information” table displays the following information at each stage:
proportion of information
actual information level, if the maximum information is either specified or derived
cumulative error spending for each boundary
The “Method Information” table displays detailed method information for the design. For each boundary, it displays the following:
the group sequential method used
the or errors
the specified parameter , if an error spending function is used
the specified parameters and with the derived critical value C, if a unified family method is used
the alternative reference , if either the ALTREF= or the MAXINFO= option is specified
the derived drift parameter, , where is the maximum information and is the alternative reference
Note that the alternative references are displayed with the MLE scale in the “Method Information” table. In contrast, the alternative references in the “Boundary Information” table are displayed with the specified statistic scale (if the p-value scale is not specified) or the standardized Z scale (if the p-value scale is specified).
The “Powers and Expected Sample Sizes” table displays the following information under each of the specified hypothetical references , where is the alternative reference and are values specified in the CREF= option.
coefficient for the hypothetical references. The value corresponds to the null hypothesis and corresponds to the alternative hypothesis
power
expected sample size, as percentage of fixed-sample size
For a one-sided design, the power and expected sample sizes under the hypothetical references are displayed.
For a two-sided symmetric design, the power and expected sample sizes under each of the hypothetical references are displayed, where is the upper alternative reference.
For a two-sided asymmetric design, the power and expected sample sizes under each of the hypothetical references and are displayed, where and are the lower and upper alternative references, respectively.
For a two-sided design, the power is the probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis for the correct alternative. Thus, under the null hypothesis, the displayed power corresponds to a one-sided Type I error probability level—that is, the lower level or the upper level.
The expected sample size as a percentage of the corresponding fixed-sample design is
where is the stopping probability at stage k, is the expected information level, and is the information level for the fixed-sample design.
When you use the SAMPLESIZE statement with the SEQDESIGN procedure, the “Sample Size Summary” table displays parameters for the sample size computation. It also displays the expected sample sizes or numbers of events for the model under both the null and alternative hypotheses.
The expected sample size is the average sample size
where is the stopping probability at stage k, is the expected information level, is the information level for the fixed-sample design, and is the sample size for the fixed-sample design.
The expected number of events is the average number of events
where is the fixed-sample number of events for the model.
The “Sample Sizes (N)” table displays the required sample sizes and information levels at each stage, in both fractional and integer numbers. The derived fractional sample sizes are under the heading “Fractional N.” These sample sizes are rounded up to integers under the heading “Ceiling N.” The matched integer sample sizes are also displayed for two-sample tests.
The “Required Number of Events (D)” table displays the required number of events required and information level at each stage.
The “Number of Events (D) and Sample Sizes (N)” table displays the number of events and sample size required at each stage with the study time. The derived times under the heading “Fractional Time” are not integers. These times are rounded up to integers under the heading “Ceiling Time.”
The “Expected Cumulative Stopping Probabilities” table displays the following information under each of the specified hypothetical references , where are values specified in the CREF= option, and is the alternative reference:
coefficient for the hypothetical references. The value corresponds to the null hypothesis, and corresponds to the alternative hypothesis
expected stopping stage
source of the stopping probability: reject (with STOP=REJECT or STOP=BOTH), accept (with STOP=ACCEPT or STOP=BOTH), or either reject or accept (with STOP=BOTH)
expected cumulative stopping probabilities at each stage
For a one-sided design, the expected cumulative stopping probabilities under the hypothetical references are displayed.
For a two-sided design, the expected cumulative stopping probabilities under each of the hypothetical references and are displayed, where and are the lower and upper alternative references, respectively.
Note that for a symmetric two-sided design, only the expected cumulative stopping probabilities under the hypothetical references are derived.
The expected stopping stage is given by , where the integer and the fraction d () are derived from the expected information level equation
where is the stopping probability at stage k.
For equally spaced information levels, the expected stopping stage is reduced to the weighted average