Statistical procedures use ODS Graphics to create graphs as part of their output. ODS Graphics is described in detail in Chapter 21: Statistical Graphics Using ODS.
Before you create graphs, ODS Graphics must be enabled (for example, by specifying the ODS GRAPHICS ON statement). For more information about enabling and disabling ODS Graphics, see the section Enabling and Disabling ODS Graphics in Chapter 21: Statistical Graphics Using ODS.
The overall appearance of graphs is controlled by ODS styles. Styles and other aspects of using ODS Graphics are discussed in the section A Primer on ODS Statistical Graphics in Chapter 21: Statistical Graphics Using ODS.
These ODS graphs are controlled by the PLOTS= option in the PROC PROBIT statement. You can specify more than one graph request with the PLOTS= option. Table 79.41 summarizes these requests.
Table 79.41: Options for Plots
Option 
Plot 


ALL 
All appropriate plots 

CDFPLOT 
Estimated cumulative probability 

IPPPLOT 
Inverse predicted probability 

LPREDPLOT 
Linear predictor 

NONE 
No plot 

PREDPPLOT 
Predicted probability 
The following subsections provide information about these graphs.
PROC PROBIT assigns a name to each graph it creates using ODS. You can use these names to reference the graphs when using ODS. The names are listed in Table 79.42.
Table 79.42: Graphs Produced by PROC PROBIT
ODS Graph Name 
Plot Description 
Statement 
PLOTS= Option 

CDFPlot 
Estimated cumulative probability 
PROC 
CDFPLOT 
IPPPlot 
Inverse predicted probability 
PROC 
IPPPLOT 
LPredPlot 
Linear predictor 
PROC 
LPREDPLOT 
PredPPlot 
Predicted probability 
PROC 
PREDPPLOT 
For a multinomial model, the predicted cumulative distribution function is defined as
where are the indexes of the k levels of the multinomial response variable, F is the CDF of the distribution used to model the cumulative probabilities, is the vector of estimated parameters, is the covariate vector, are estimated ordinal intercepts with , and C is the threshold parameter, either known or estimated from the model. Let be the covariate corresponding to the dose variable and be the vector of the rest of the covariates. Let the corresponding estimated parameters be and . Then
To plot as a function of , must be specified. You can use the XDATA= option to provide the values of (see the XDATA= option in the PROC PROBIT statement for details), or use the default values that follow these rules:
If the effect contains a continuous variable (or variables), the overall mean of this effect is used.
If the effect is a single classification variable, the highest level of the variable is used.
The LEVEL= suboption specify the levels of the multinomial response variable for which the CDF curves are requested. There are k – 1 curves for a klevel multinomial response variable (for the highest level, it is the constant line 1). You can specify any of them to be plotted by the LEVEL= suboption. See the plot in Output 79.2.6 for an example.
For the binomial model, the response variable is a probability. An estimate of the dose level needed for a response of p is given by
where F is the cumulative distribution function used to model the probability, is the vector of the rest of the covariates, is the vector of the estimated parameters corresponding to , and is the estimated parameter for the dose variable of interest.
To plot as a function of p, must be specified. You can use the XDATA= option to provide the values of (see the XDATA= option in the PROC PROBIT statement for details), or use the default values that follow these rules:
If the effect contains a continuous variable (or variables), the overall mean of this effect is used.
If the effect is a single classification variable, the highest level of the variable is used.
Output 79.4.12 in Example 79.4 shows an inverse predicted probability plot.
For both binomial models and multinomial models, the linear predictor can be plotted against the first single continuous variable (dose variable) in the MODEL statement.
Let be the covariate of the dose variable, be the vector of the rest of the covariates, be the vector of estimated parameters corresponding to , and be the estimated parameter for the dose variable of interest.
To plot as a function of , must be specified. You can use the XDATA= option to provide the values of (see the XDATA= option in the PROC PROBIT statement for details), or use the default values that follow these rules:
If the effect contains a continuous variable (or variables), the overall mean of this effect is used.
If the effect is a single classification variable, the highest level of the variable is used.
For the multinomial model, you can use the LEVEL= suboption to specify the levels for which the linear predictor lines are plotted.
The confidence limits for the predicted values are only available for the binomial model. Output 79.4.13 in Example 79.4 shows a linear predictor plot for a binomial model.
The predicted probability is
for the binomial model and
for the multinomial model with k response levels, where F is the cumulative distribution function used to model the probability, is the vector of the covariates, are the estimated ordinal intercepts with , C is the threshold parameter, either known or estimated from the model, and is the vector of estimated parameters.
To plot (or ) as a function of a continuous variable , the remaining covariates must be specified. You can use the XDATA= option to provide the values of (see the XDATA= option in the PROC PROBIT statement for details), or use the default values that follow these rules:
If the effect contains a continuous variable (or variables), the overall mean of this effect is used.
If the effect is a single classification variable, the highest level of the variable is used.
For the multinomial model, you can use the LEVEL= suboption to specify the levels for which the linear predictor lines are plotted.
Confidence limits are plotted only for the binomial model. Output 79.1.7 in Example 79.1 shows a predicted probability plot for a binomial model; and Output 79.2.3 in Example 79.2 shows a predicted probability plot for a multinomial model.