The following notation is used in this section:

jth response in the ith group 
k 
number of groups 

sample size of ith group 
N 
total sample size 

expected value of a response in the ith group 

standard deviation of a response 

average response in the ith group 

weighted average of k group means 

sample variance of the responses in the ith group 

mean square error (MSE) 

degrees of freedom associated with the mean square error 

significance level 

critical value for analysis of means when the sample sizes are equal 

critical value for analysis of means when the sample sizes are not equal 
By default, the central line on an ANOM chart for means represents the weighted average of the group means, which is computed as

You can specify a value for with the MEAN= option in the XCHART statement or with the variable _MEAN_
in a LIMITS= data set.
In the analysis of means for continuous data, it is assumed that the responses in the ith group are at least approximately normally distributed with a constant variance:

When the group sizes are constant (), then and the decision limits are computed as follows:






Here the mean square error (MSE) is computed as follows:

For details concerning the function , see Nelson (1982a, 1993).
When the group sizes are not constant (the unbalanced case), and the decision limits for the ith group are computed as follows:






Here the mean square error (MSE) is computed as follows:

This requires that be positive. A chart is not produced if but MSE is equal to zero (unless you specify the ZEROSTD option). For details concerning the function , see Nelson (1991).
You can specify parameters for the limits as follows:
Specify with the ALPHA= option or with the variable _ALPHA_
in a LIMITS= data set. By default, = 0.05.
Specify a constant nominal sample size for the decision limits in the balanced case with the LIMITN= option or with the variable _LIMITN_
in a LIMITS= data set. By default, n is the observed sample size in the balanced case.
Specify k with the LIMITK= option or with the variable _LIMITK_
in a LIMITS= data set. By default, k is the number of groups.
Specify with the MEAN= option or with the variable _MEAN_
in a LIMITS= data set. By default, is the weighted average of the responses.
Specify with the MSE= option or with the variable _MSE_
in a LIMITS= data set. By default, is computed as indicated above.
Specify with the DFE= option or with the variable _DFE_
in a LIMITS= data set. By default, is determined as indicated above.