The REFERENCE statement specifies the information in the reference data set. This statement is required when METHOD=DIRECT
or METHOD=INDIRECT is specified in the PROC STDRATE statement.
You can specify the following options in the REFERENCE statement:

EVENT=variable

specifies the variable for the number of events in the reference data set.

RATE <( MULT=c )> = variable

specifies the variable for the observed rate in the reference data set. This option applies only when STAT=RATE is specified in the PROC STDRATE
statement. The MULT=c suboption specifies a power of 10 constant c and requests that the rates per c populationtime units be read from the data set. The default is the value of the MULT= suboption used in the STAT=RATE option
in the PROC STDRATE statement.

RISK=variable

specifies the variable for the observed risk in the reference data set. This option applies only when STAT=RISK is specified in the PROC STDRATE
statement.

TOTAL=variable

specifies the variable for either the populationtime (STAT=RATE) or the number of observations (STAT=RISK) in the reference data set.
When METHOD=INDIRECT is specified in the PROC STDRATE statement, the overall reference population rate and risk are needed
to compute indirect standardized rate and risk, respectively. If the information is not available in the reference data set,
you can specify the following options for overall reference population rate and risk.

REFEVENT=number

specifies the total number of events in the reference data set.

REFRATE <( MULT=c )> = number

specifies the crude rate in the reference data set. This option applies only when STAT=RATE is specified in the PROC STDRATE
statement. The MULT=c suboption specifies a power of 10 constant c, and the number is the crude rate per c populationtime units in the data set. The default is the value of the MULT= suboption in the STAT=RATE option in the PROC
STDRATE statement.

REFRISK=number

specifies the crude risk in the reference data set. This option applies only when STAT=RISK is specified in the PROC STDRATE
statement.

REFTOTAL=number

specifies either the total populationtime (STAT=RATE) or the total number of observations (STAT=RISK) in the reference data
set.
When STAT=RATE, the REFRATE= option specifies the crude reference rate for the indirect standardized rate. If the REFRATE=
option is not specified, the REFEVENT= and REFTOTAL options can be used to compute the crude reference rate. Similarly, when
STAT=RISK, the REFRISK= option specifies the crude reference risk for the indirect standardized rate. If the REFRISK= option
is not specified, the REFEVENT= and REFTOTAL options can be used to compute the crude reference risk.
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