Table 71.29 displays notation for some of the more common parameters across analyses. The Associated Syntax column shows examples of relevant analysis statement options, where applicable.
Table 71.29: Common Notation
Symbol 
Description 
Associated Syntax 


Significance level 
ALPHA= 
N 
Total sample size 
NTOTAL=, NPAIRS= 

Sample size in ith group 
NPERGROUP=, GROUPNS= 

Allocation weight for ith group (standardized to sum to 1) 
GROUPWEIGHTS= 

(Arithmetic) mean 
MEAN= 

(Arithmetic) mean in ith group 
GROUPMEANS=, PAIREDMEANS= 

(Arithmetic) mean difference, or 
MEANDIFF= 

Null mean or mean difference (arithmetic) 
NULL=, NULLDIFF= 

Geometric mean 
MEAN= 

Geometric mean in ith group 
GROUPMEANS=, PAIREDMEANS= 

Null mean or mean ratio (geometric) 
NULL=, NULLRATIO= 

Standard deviation (or common standard deviation per group) 
STDDEV= 

Standard deviation in ith group 
GROUPSTDDEVS=, PAIREDSTDDEVS= 

Standard deviation of differences 

CV 
Coefficient of variation, defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the (arithmetic) mean 
CV=, PAIREDCVS= 

Correlation 
CORR= 

Treatment and reference (arithmetic) means for equivalence test 
GROUPMEANS=, PAIREDMEANS= 

Treatment and reference geometric means for equivalence test 
GROUPMEANS=, PAIREDMEANS= 

Lower equivalence bound 
LOWER= 

Upper equivalence bound 
UPPER= 

t distribution with df and noncentrality 


F distribution with numerator df , denominator df , and noncentrality 


pth percentile of t distribution with df 


pth percentile of F distribution with numerator df and denominator df 


Binomial distribution with sample size N and proportion p 
A “lower onesided” test is associated with SIDES=L (or SIDES=1 with the effect smaller than the null value), and an “upper onesided” test is associated with SIDES=U (or SIDES=1 with the effect larger than the null value).
Owen (1965) defines a function, known as Owen’s Q, that is convenient for representing terms in power formulas for confidence intervals and equivalence tests:
where and are the density and cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution, respectively.