The HPMIXED Procedure

BY Statement

BY variables ;

You can specify a BY statement in PROC HPMIXED to obtain separate analyses of observations in groups that are defined by the BY variables. When a BY statement appears, PROC HPMIXED expects the input data set to be sorted in order of the BY variables. If you specify more than one BY statement, only the last one specified is used.

If your input data set is not sorted in ascending order, use one of the following alternatives:

  • Sort the data by using the SORT procedure and a similar BY statement.

  • Specify the NOTSORTED or DESCENDING option in the BY statement for the HPMIXED procedure. The NOTSORTED option does not mean that the data are unsorted but rather that the data are arranged in groups (according to values of the BY variables) and that these groups are not necessarily in alphabetical or increasing numeric order.

  • Create an index on the BY variables by using the DATASETS procedure (in Base SAS software).

Since sorting the data changes the order in which PROC HPMIXED reads observations, the sort order for the levels of the CLASS variable might be affected if you have specified ORDER=DATA in the PROC HPMIXED statement. This, in turn, affects specifications in the CONTRAST and ESTIMATE statements.

For more information about BY-group processing, see SAS Language Reference: Concepts. For more information about the DATASETS procedure, see Base SAS Procedures Guide.