Consider a model with one CLASS variable A with four levels: 1, 2, 5, and 7. Details of the possible choices for the PARAM= option follow.
Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the nonreference levels. For the reference level, all three dummy variables have a value of . For instance, if the reference level is 7 (REF=7), the design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
A1 
A2 
A5 















For CLASS main effects that use the EFFECT coding scheme, individual parameters correspond to the difference between the effect of each nonreference level and the average over all four levels.
As in PROC GLM, four columns are created to indicate group membership. The design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
A1 
A2 
A5 
A7 



















For CLASS main effects that use the GLM coding scheme, individual parameters correspond to the difference between the effect of each level and the last level.
Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the higher levels of the effect. For the first level of the effect (which for A is 1), all three dummy variables have a value of 0. The design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
A2 
A5 
A7 















The first level of the effect is a control or baseline level.
For CLASS main effects that use the ORDINAL coding scheme, the first level of the effect is a control or baseline level; individual parameters correspond to the difference between effects of the current level and the preceding level. When the parameters for an ordinal main effect have the same sign, the response effect is monotonic across the levels.
Three columns are created. The first represents the linear term (), the second represents the quadratic term (), and the third represents the cubic term (), where is the level value. If the CLASS levels are not numeric, they are translated into 1, 2, 3, according to their sorting order. The design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
APOLY1 
APOLY2 
APOLY3 















Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the nonreference levels. For the reference level, all three dummy variables have a value of 0. For instance, if the reference level is 7 (REF=7), the design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
A1 
A2 
A5 















For CLASS main effects that use the REFERENCE coding scheme, individual parameters correspond to the difference between the effect of each nonreference level and the reference level.
The columns are obtained by applying the GramSchmidt orthogonalization to the columns for PARAM=EFFECT. The design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
AOEFF1 
AOEFF2 
AOEFF3 















The columns are obtained by applying the GramSchmidt orthogonalization to the columns for PARAM=ORDINAL. The design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
AOORD1 
AOORD2 
AOORD3 















The columns are obtained by applying the GramSchmidt orthogonalization to the columns for PARAM=POLY. The design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
AOPOLY1 
AOPOLY2 
AOPOLY5 















The columns are obtained by applying the GramSchmidt orthogonalization to the columns for PARAM=REFERENCE. The design matrix columns for A are as follows.
Design Matrix 


A 
AOREF1 
AOREF2 
AOREF3 














