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The sample programs in this quick-start guide represent only a small fraction of the programming features in Base SAS. Other capabilities that may interest you include

Additional Base SAS procedures

You can use other Base SAS procedures for report writing, elementary statistics, and utility purposes. See the list of SAS procedures by name and product for general information about Base SAS procedures and their capabilities. For more detailed information, in SAS click Helpthen SAS Help and Documentation. Then click SAS ProductsthenBase SASthenBase SAS Procedures and see individual procedures.  Return to top

Other elementary and advanced statistics

In this guide, you saw examples of several elementary statistical procedures such as the CHART, TABULATE, FREQ, SQL, and UNIVARIATE procedures. Other elementary statistical procedures in Base SAS include the CORR, RANK, STANDARD, MEANS, REPORT, and SUMMARY procedures. See the list of elementary statistical procedures for general information about these procedures. For detailed information, in SAS click HelpthenSAS Help and Documentation. Then click SAS Products thenBase SASthen SAS Procedures and see individual procedures.

Advanced DATA step operations

The sample programs in this guide cover DATA step operations including

  • conditional processing
  • calculating new values
  • reading SAS data sets
  • subsetting data
  • using formats and informats
  • performing data manipulation and transformations using SAS functions.

You can do much more with the DATA step, which provides you with a powerful programming language, access to external files and print files, and special variables to control what happens during each execution of the DATA step. For example, you can

  • read and write different types of data
  • combine and modify SAS data sets
  • summarize data
  • process data iteratively
  • use arrays
  • perform table lookups
  • reshape data
  • transpose data
  • perform error handling
  • create your own formats and informats.

Another important feature of the DATA step is that it enables you to create completely customized reports in any form that a printer supports. You can even create multiple reports with one pass through the data.

For more information about DATA step capabilities, in SAS click Helpthen SAS Help and Documentation. Then click SAS Productsthen Base SAS then SAS Language Reference: Concepts and click on DATA Step Concepts.  Return to top

Other Output Delivery System (ODS) capabilities

In this quick-start guide, you saw examples of using ODS statements to control the formatting of SAS procedure output in several ways (as HTML, output data sets, and interactive graphs, and by assigning ODS styles to output).

ODS provides an almost limitless number of choices for reporting and displaying analytical results in visually appealing formats, such as HTML, PDF, RTF, PostScript, PCL, an array of markup languages (including HTML4 and XML), and the brand new ODS Document formats. Using the DOCUMENT procedure, you can produce multiple ODS output without rerunning your procedures or data queries. Furthermore, you can customize or modify your output hierarchy by rearranging, duplicating, or removing tables or even the entire output of procedures and data queries. In short, you control what stays in and what comes out of your document, and in what format you want to see it without running the same procedures and data queries over and over again.

ODS also provides template definitions that define the structure of the output from procedures and from the DATA step. You can customize the output by modifying these definitions or by creating your own with PROC TEMPLATE. You can use the TEMPLATE procedure to create and modify any tagsets that you selected or created for your output.

For more information about ODS, in SAS click Helpthen SAS Help and Documentation. Then click SAS Productsthen Base SASthen SAS Output Delivery System: User's Guide.  Return to top

Macro programming

The macro facility is a tool for extending and customizing SAS and for reducing the amount of text you must enter to do common tasks. The macro facility allows you to assign a name to character strings or groups of SAS programming statements. From that point on, you can work with the names rather than with the text itself.

When you use a macro facility name in a SAS program or from a command prompt, the macro facility generates SAS statements and commands as needed. The rest of SAS receives those statements and uses them in the same way it uses the ones you enter in the standard manner.

For more information about the macro facility, in SAS click Helpthen SAS Help and Documentation. Then click SAS Productsthen Base SASthen SAS Macro Language ReferenceReturn to top

OLAP and Multidimensional database (MDDB)

SAS/MDDB Server software and SAS OLAP Server software are two additional SAS components for creating and deploying a multidimensional database (MDDB). An MDDB is a specialized data storage facility that stores summarized data for fast and easy access. As of SAS 9, the SAS/MDDB Server, which creates MDDBs, is a component of the SAS OLAP Server, which creates cubes.

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), also known as multidimensional data analysis, offers you high-performance access to large amounts of summarized data for complex multidimensional analysis and easy reporting. SAS/MDDB Server software is an integrated part of SAS Institute's decision management architecture. This model of OLAP enables business users to make better decisions by giving them quick, unlimited views of multiple relationships in large quantities of summarized data. Hybrid OLAP data access (HOLAP) enables multidimensional viewers to access both relational and multidimensional data structures. HOLAP data access is a new component of SAS/MDDB Server software. Within the SAS/MDDB Server HOLAP data structure, there can be references to SAS tables, SAS views, and MDDBs, all of which can be stored either locally or on a remote server.

SAS OLAP Server enables users to develop and deploy scalable OLAP applications. The applications can scale primarily through exploitation of multithreading and multi-processor hardware technology using SPDE and threaded kernel technology in the SAS System. The data can be stored in a multidimensional form (MOLAP) or in a hybrid form which combines relational and multidimensional storage (HOLAP). Client applications connect to the SAS OLAP Server using OLE DB for OLAP, an extension of OLE DB used by COM-based clients, or through a similarly designed Java interface. In both cases, OLAP queries are performed using the Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) query language.

Upgrading from SAS/MDDB Server

For more information about SAS/MDDB Server software and SAS OLAP Server software, in SAS click Helpthen SAS Help and Documentationthen SAS Products. Click SAS OLAP ServerReturn to top

Additional PROC SQL capabilities

In this guide, you saw ways of using PROC SQL to retrieve data from a single table and to join tables in various ways. You can also use PROC SQL to

  • retrieve and manipulate data that is stored in tables or views.
  • create tables, views, and indexes on columns in tables.
  • create SAS macro variables that contain values from rows in a query's result.
  • add or modify the data values in a table's columns or insert and delete rows. You can also modify the table itself by adding, modifying, or dropping columns.
  • send DBMS-specific SQL statements to a database management system (DBMS) and to retrieve DBMS data.
For more information about PROC SQL, in SAS click Helpthen SAS Help and Documentation. Then click SAS Productsthen Base SASthen SAS SQL Procedure User's Guide. Return to top

SAS/ACCESS interfaces

As you learned in See an overview of SAS, SAS/ACCESS provides access to these types of files:

Relational databases

DB2 under OS/390
DB2 under VM
DB2 under UNIX or PC


Oracle Rdb
MS SQL Server
Non-relational databases and other data sources



PC File Formats
SYSTEM 2000 software
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems




For more information about SAS/ACCESS, in SAS click Helpthen SAS Help and Documentation. Then click SAS Productsthen SAS/ACCESSReturn to top

You've completed the Getting Started with SAS tutorial!

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