Communications Papers A-Z

Paper 1815-2014:
A Case Study: Performance Analysis and Optimization of SAS® Grid Computing Scaling on a Shared Storage
SAS® Grid Computing is a scale-out SAS® solution that enables SAS applications to better utilize computing resources, which is extremely I/O and compute intensive. It requires the use of a high-performance shared storage (SS) that allows all servers to access the same file systems. SS may be implemented via traditional NFS NAS or clustered file systems (CFS) like GPFS. This paper uses the Lustre* file system, a parallel, distributed CFS, for a case study of performance scalability of SAS Grid Computing nodes on SS. The paper qualifies the performance of a standardized SAS workload running on Lustre at scale. Lustre has been traditionally used for large and sequential I/O. We will record and present the tuning changes necessary for the optimization of Lustre for the SAS applications. In addition, results from the scaling of SAS Cluster jobs running on Lustre will be presented.
Suleyman Sair, Intel Corporation
Brett Lee, Intel Corporation
Ying M. Zhang, Intel Corporation
Paper 1548-2014:
A Framework Based on SAS® for ETL and Reporting
Nowadays, most corporations build and maintain their own data warehouse, and an ETL (Extract, Transform, and Load) process plays a critical role in managing the data. Some people might create a large program and execute this program from top to bottom. Others might generate a SAS® driver with several programs included, and then execute this driver. If some programs can be run in parallel, then developers must write extra code to handle these concurrent processes. If one program fails, then users can either rerun the entire process or comment out the successful programs and resume the job from where the program failed. Usually the programs are deployed in production with read and execute permission only. Users do not have the priviledge of modifying codes on the fly. In this case, how do you comment out the programs if the job terminated abnormally? This paper illustrates an approach for managing ETL process flows. The approach uses a framework based on SAS, on a UNIX platform. This is a high-level infrastructure discussion with some explanation of the SAS codes that are used to implement the framework. The framework supports the rerun or partial run of the entire process without changing any source codes. It also supports the concurrent process, and therefore no extra code is needed.
Kevin Chung, Fannie Mae
Paper 1793-2014:
A Poor/Rich SAS® User's PROC EXPORT
Have you ever wished that with one click you could copy any SAS® data set, including variable names, so that you could paste the text into a Microsoft Word file, Microsoft PowerPoint slide, or spreadsheet? You can and, with just Base SAS®, there are some little-known but easy-to use methods that are available for automating many of your (or your users ) common tasks.
Arthur Tabachneck, myQNA, Inc.
Tom Abernathy, Pfizer, Inc.
Matthew Kastin, I-Behavior, Inc.
Paper 1204-2014:
A Survey of Some of the Most Useful SAS® Functions
SAS® functions provide amazing power to your DATA step programming. Some of these functions are essential some of them save you writing volumes of unnecessary code. This paper covers some of the most useful SAS functions. Some of these functions might be new to you, and they will change the way you program and approach common programming tasks.
Ron Cody, Camp Verde Associates
Paper 1720-2014:
An Ensemble Approach for Integrating Intuition and Models
Finding groups with similar attributes is at the core of knowledge discovery. To this end, Cluster Analysis automatically locates groups of similar observations. Despite successful applications, many practitioners are uncomfortable with the degree of automation in Cluster Analysis, which causes intuitive knowledge to be ignored. This is more true in text mining applications since individual words have meaning beyond the data set. Discovering groups with similar text is extremely insightful. However, blind applications of clustering algorithms ignore intuition and hence are unable to group similar text categories. The challenge is to integrate the power of clustering algorithms with the knowledge of experts. We demonstrate how SAS/STAT® 9.2 procedures and the SAS® Macro Language are used to ensemble the opinion of domain experts with multiple clustering models to arrive at a consensus. The method has been successfully applied to a large data set with structured attributes and unstructured opinions. The result is the ability to discover observations with similar attributes and opinions by capturing the wisdom of the crowds whether man or model.
Masoud Charkhabi, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC)
Ling Zhu, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC)
Paper 1288-2014:
Analysis of Unstructured Data: Applications of Text Analytics and Sentiment Mining
The proliferation of textual data in business is overwhelming. Unstructured textual data is being constantly generated via call center logs, emails, documents on the web, blogs, tweets, customer comments, customer reviews, and so on. While the amount of textual data is increasing rapidly, businesses ability to summarize, understand, and make sense of such data for making better business decisions remain challenging. This presentation takes a quick look at how to organize and analyze textual data for extracting insightful customer intelligence from a large collection of documents and for using such information to improve business operations and performance. Multiple business applications of case studies using real data that demonstrate applications of text analytics and sentiment mining using SAS® Text Miner and SAS® Sentiment Analysis Studio are presented. While SAS® products are used as tools for demonstration only, the topics and theories covered are generic (not tool specific).
Goutam Chakraborty, Oklahoma State University
Murali Pagolu, SAS
Paper 1779-2014:
Assessing the Impact of Factors in a Facebook Post that Influence the EdgeRank Metric of Facebook Using the Power Ratio
Most marketers today are trying to use Facebook s network of 1.1 billion plus registered users for social media marketing. Local television stations and newspapers are no exception. This paper investigates what makes a post effective. A Facebook page that is owned by a brand has fans, or people who like the page and follow the stories posted on that page. The posts on a brand page, however, do not appear on all the fans News Feeds. This is determined by EdgeRank, a Facebook proprietary algorithm that determines what content users see and how it s prioritized on their News Feed. If marketers can understand how EdgeRank works, then they can develop more impactful posts and ultimately produce more effective social marketing using Facebook. The objective of this paper is to find the characteristics of a Facebook post that enhance the efficacy of a news outlet s page among their fans using Facebook Power Ratio as the target variable. Power Ratio, a surrogate to EdgeRank, was developed by experts at Frank N. Magid Associates, a research-based media consulting firm. Seventeen variables that describe the characteristics of a post were extracted from more than 8,000 posts, which were encoded by 10 media experts at Magid. Numerous models were built and compared to predict Power Ratio. The most useful model is a polynomial regression with the top three important factors as whether a post asks fans to like the post, content category of a post (including news, weather, etc.), and number of fans of the page.
Dinesh Yadav Gaddam, Oklahoma State University
Yogananda Domlur Seetharama, Oklahoma State University
Paper 1732-2014:
Automatic and Efficient Post-Campaign Analyses By Using SAS® Macro Programs
In our previous work, we often needed to perform large numbers of repetitive and data-driven post-campaign analyses to evaluate the performance of marketing campaigns in terms of customer response. These routine tasks were usually carried out manually by using Microsoft Excel, which was tedious, time-consuming, and error-prone. In order to improve the work efficiency and analysis accuracy, we managed to automate the analysis process with SAS® programming and replace the manual Excel work. Through the use of SAS macro programs and other advanced skills, we successfully automated the complicated data-driven analyses with high efficiency and accuracy. This paper presents and illustrates the creative analytical ideas and programming skills for developing the automatic analysis process, which can be extended to apply in a variety of business intelligence and analytics fields.
Justin Jia, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC)
Amanda Lin, Bell Canada
Paper 1449-2014:
Basic SAS® PROCedures for Producing Quick Results
As IT professionals, saving time is critical. Delivering timely and quality-looking reports and information to management, end users, and customers is essential. SAS® provides numerous 'canned' PROCedures for generating quick results to take care of these needs ... and more. In this hands-on workshop, attendees acquire basic insights into the power and flexibility offered by SAS PROCedures using PRINT, FORMS, and SQL to produce detail output; FREQ, MEANS, and UNIVARIATE to summarize and create tabular and statistical output; and data sets to manage data libraries. Additional topics include techniques for informing SAS which data set to use as input to a procedure, how to subset data using a WHERE statement (or WHERE= data set option), and how to perform BY-group processing.
Kirk Paul Lafler, Software Intelligence Corporation
Paper 1444-2014:
Before You Get Started: A Macro Language Preview in Three Parts. Part 1: What the Language Is, What It Does, and What It Can Do
As complicated as the macro language is to learn, there are very strong reasons for doing so. At its heart, the macro language is a code generator. In its simplest uses, it can substitute simple bits of code like variable names and the names of data sets that are to be analyzed. In more complex situations, it can be used to create entire statements and steps based on information may even be unavailable to the person writing or even executing the macro. At the time of execution, it can be used to make queries of the SAS® environment as well as the operating system, and utilize the gathered information to make informed decisions about how it is to further function and execute.
Art Carpenter, California Occidental Consultants
Paper 1445-2014:
Before You Get Started: A Macro Language Preview in Three Parts. Part 2: It's All about the Timing.Why the Macro Language Comes First
Because the macro language is primarily a code generator, it makes sense that the code that it creates must be generated before it can be executed. This implies that execution of the macro language comes first. Simple as this is in concept, timing issues and conflicts are often not so simple to recognize in application. As we use the macro language to take on more complex tasks, it becomes even more critical that we have an understanding of these issues.
Art Carpenter, California Occidental Consultants
Paper 1447-2014:
Before You Get Started: A Macro Language Preview in Three Parts. Part 3: Creating Macro Variables and Demystifying Their Scope
Macro variables and their values are stored in symbol tables, which in turn are held in memory. Not only are there are a number of ways to create macro variables, but they can be created in a wide variety of situations. How they are created and under what circumstances effects the variable s scope how and where the macro variable is stored and retrieved. There are a number of misconceptions about macro variable scope and about how the macro variables are assigned to symbol tables. These misconceptions can cause problems that the new, and sometimes even the experienced, macro programmer does not anticipate. Understanding the basic rules for macro variable assignment can help the macro programmer solve some of these problems that are otherwise quite mystifying.
Art Carpenter, California Occidental Consultants
Paper 1895-2014:
Best Practices in SAS® Enterprise Guide®
This paper provides an overview of how to create a SAS® Enterprise Guide® process that is well designed, simple, documented, automated, modular, efficient, reliable, and easy to maintain. Topics include how to organize a SAS Enterprise Guide process, how to best document in SAS Enterprise Guide, when to leverage point-and-click functionality, and how to automate and simplify SAS Enterprise Guide processes. This paper has something for any SAS Enterprise Guide user, new or experienced!
Jennifer First-Kluge, Systems Seminar Consultants
Steven First, Systems Seminar Consultants
Paper 1792-2014:
Big Data/Metadata Governance
The emerging discipline of data governance encompasses data quality assurance, data access and use policy, security risks and privacy protection, and longitudinal management of an organization s data infrastructure. In the interests of forestalling another bureaucratic solution to data governance issues, this presentation features database programming tools that provide rapid access to big data and make selective access to and restructuring of metadata practical.
Sigurd Hermansen, Westat
Paper 1794-2014:
Big Data? Faster Cube Builds? PROC OLAP Can Do It
In many organizations the amount of data we deal with increases far faster than the hardware and IT infrastructure to support them. As a result, we encounter significant bottlenecks and I/O bound processes. However, clever use of SAS® software can help us find a way around. In this paper we will look at the clever use of PROC OLAP to show you how to address I/O bound processing spread I/O traffic to different servers to increase cube building efficiency. This paper assumes experience with SAS® OLAP Cube Studio and/or PROC OLAP.
Yunbo (Jenny) Sun, Canada Post
Michael Brule, SAS
Paper SAS171-2014:
Big Digital Data, Analytic Visualization, and the Opportunity of Digital Intelligence
Digital data has manifested into a classic BIG DATA challenge for marketers who want to push past the retroactive analysis limitations of traditional web analytics. The current groundswell of digital device adoption and variety of digital interactions grows larger year after year. The opportunity for 'digital intelligence' has arrived, as traditional web analytic techniques were not designed for the breadth of channels, devices, and pace that fuels consumer experiences. In parallel, today's landscape for data visualization, advanced analytics, and our ability to process very large amounts of multi-channel information is changing. The democratization of analytics for the masses is upon us, and marketers have the oppourtunity to take advantage of descriptive, predictive, and (most importantly) prescriptive data-driven insights. This presentation describes how organizations can use SAS® products, specifically SAS® Visual Analytics and SAS® Adaptive Customer Experience, to overcome the limitations of web analytics, and support data-driven integrated marketing objectives.
Suneel Grover, SAS
Paper 1271-2014:
DATA Step Merging Techniques: From Basic to Innovative
Merging or joining data sets is an integral part of the data consolidation process. Within SAS®, there are numerous methods and techniques that can be used to combine two or more data sets. We commonly think that within the DATA step the MERGE statement is the only way to join these data sets, while in fact, the MERGE is only one of numerous techniques available to us to perform this process. Each of these techniques has advantages, and some have disadvantages. The informed programmer needs to have a grasp of each of these techniques if the correct technique is to be applied. This paper covers basic merging concepts and options within the DATA step, as well as a number of techniques that go beyond the traditional MERGE statement. These include fuzzy merges, double SET statements, and the use of key indexing. The discussion will include the relative efficiencies of these techniques, especially when working with large data sets.
Art Carpenter, California Occidental Consultants
Paper 2044-2014:
Dataset Matching and Clustering with PROC OPTNET
We used OPTNET to link hedge fund datasets from four vendors, covering overlapping populations, but with no universal identifier. This quick tip shows how to treat data records as nodes, use pairwise identifiers to generate distance measures, and get PROC OPTNET to assign clusters of records from all sources to each hedge fund. This proved to be far faster, and easier, than doing the same task in PROC SQL.
Mark Keintz, Wharton Research Data Services
Paper SAS207-2014:
Did My Coupon Campaign Accomplish Anything? An Application of Selection Models to Retailing
Evaluation of the efficacy of an intervention is often complicated because the intervention is not randomly assigned. Usually, interventions in marketing, such as coupons or retention campaigns, are directed at customers because their spending is below some threshold or because the customers themselves make a purchase decision. The presence of nonrandom assignment of the stimulus can lead to over- or underestimating the value of the intervention. This can cause future campaigns to be directed at the wrong customers or cause the impacts of these effects to be over- or understated. This paper gives a brief overview of selection bias, demonstrates how selection in the data can be modeled, and shows how to apply some of the important consistent methods of estimating selection models, including Heckman's two-step procedure, in an empirical example. Sample code is provided in an appendix.
Gunce Walton, SAS
Kenneth Sanford, SAS
Paper 1510-2014:
Direct Memory Data Management Using the APP Tools
APP is an unofficial collective abbreviation for the SAS® functions ADDR, PEEK, PEEKC, the CALL POKE routine, and their so-called LONG 64-bit counterparts the SAS tools designed to directly read from and write to physical memory in the DATA step. APP functions have long been a SAS dark horse. First, the examples of APP usage in SAS documentation amount to a few technical report tidbits intended for mainframe system programming, with nary a hint how the functions can be used for data management programming. Second, the documentation note on the CALL POKE routine is so intimidating in tone that many potentially receptive folks might decide to avoid the allegedly precarious route altogether. However, little can stand in the way of an inquisitive SAS programmer daring to take a close look, and it turns out that APP functions are very simple and useful tools! They can be used to explore how things really work, to make code more concise, to implement en masse data movement, and they can often dramatically improve execution efficiency. The author and many other SAS experts (notably Peter Crawford, Koen Vyverman, Richard DeVenezia, Toby Dunn, and the fellow masked by his 'Puddin' Man' sobriquet) have been poking around the SAS APP realm on SAS-L and in their own practices since 1998, occasionally letting the SAS community at large to peek at their findings. This opus is an attempt to circumscribe the results in a systematic manner. Welcome to the APP world! You are in for a few glorious surprises.
Paul Dorfman, Dorfman Consulting
Paper SAS213-2014:
Ex-Ante Forecast Model Performance with Rolling Simulations
Given a time series data set, you can use automatic time series modeling software to select an appropriate time series model. You can use various statistics to judge how well each candidate model fits the data (in-sample). Likewise, you can use various statistics to select an appropriate model from a list of candidate models (in-sample or out-of-sample or both). Finally, you can use rolling simulations to evaluate ex-ante forecast performance over several forecast origins. This paper demonstrates how you can use SAS® Forecast Server Procedures and SAS® Forecast Studiosoftware to perform the statistical analyses that are related to rolling simulations.
Michael Leonard, SAS
Ashwini Dixit, SAS
Udo Sglavo, SAS
Paper 1764-2014:
Excel with SAS® and Microsoft Excel
SAS® is an outstanding suite of software, but not everyone in the workplace speaks SAS. However, almost everyone speaks Excel. Often, the data you are analyzing, the data you are creating, and the report you are producing is a form of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Every year at SAS® Global Forum, there are SAS and Excel presentations, not just because Excel isso pervasive in the workplace, but because there s always something new to learn (or re-learn)! This paper summarizes and references (and pays homage to!) previous SAS Global Forum presentations, as well as examines some of the latest Excel capabilities with the latest versions of SAS® 9.4 and SAS® Visual Analytics.
Andrew Howell, ANJ Solutions
Paper 1450-2014:
Exploring DATA Step Merges and PROC SQL Joins
Explore the various DATA step merge and PROC SQL join processes. This presentation examines the similarities and differences between merges and joins, and provides examples of effective coding techniques. Attendees examine the objectives and principles behind merges and joins, one-to-one merges (joins), and match-merge (equi-join), as well as the coding constructs associated with inner and outer merges (joins) and PROC SQL set operators.
Kirk Paul Lafler, Software Intelligence Corporation
Paper 1753-2014:
Extracting the Needles from the Haystacks
When you want to know the details about a small subset of a much larger data set, it can take a long time to select the records you need. This paper shows you how to create a user-defined SAS® format to pull only the observations that you want out of a big data source. Even when selecting a million records out of data sets that can have more than 100 million records, this method is much quicker than either a PROC SQL join or a SAS merge.
Sara Boltman, Butterfly Projects
Paper 1267-2014:
Graphing Made Easy with ODS Graphics Procedures
Beginning with SA®S 9.2, ODS Graphics introduces a whole new way of generating graphs using SAS®. With just a few lines of code, you can create a wide variety of high-quality graphs. This paper covers the three basic ODS Graphics procedures SGPLOT, SGPANEL, and SGSCATTER. SGPLOT produces single-celled graphs. SGPANEL produces multi-celled graphs that share common axes. SGSCATTER produces multi-celled graphs that might use different axes. This paper shows how to use each of these procedures in order to produce different types of graphs, how to send your graphs to different ODS destinations, how to access individual graphs, and how to specify properties of graphs, such as format, name, height, and width.
Lora Delwiche, University of California, Davis
Susan Slaughter, Avocet Solutions
Paper SAS212-2014:
How to Separate Regular Prices from Promotional Prices?
Retail price setting is influenced by two distinct factors: the regular price and the promotion price. Together, these factors determine the list price for a specific item at a specific time. These data are often reported only as a singular list price. Separating this one price into two distinct prices is critical for accurate price elasticity modeling in retail. These elasticities are then used to make sales forecasts, manage inventory, and evaluate promotions. This paper describes a new time-series feature extraction utility within SAS® Forecast Server that allows for automated separation of promotional and regular prices.
Michael Leonard, SAS
Michele Trovero, SAS
Paper 1828-2014:
Integrated Big Data: Hadoop + DBMS + Discovery for SAS® High-Performance Analytics
SAS® High-Performance Analytics is a significant step forward in the area of high-speed, analytic processing in a scalable clustered environment. However, Big Data problems generally come with data from lots of data sources, at varying levels of maturity. Teradata s innovative Unified Data Architecture (UDA) represents a significant improvement in the way that large companies can think about Enterprise Data Management, including the Teradata Database, Hortonworks Hadoop, and Aster Data Discovery platform in a seamless integrated platform. Together, the two platforms provide business users, analysts, and data scientists with the ideally suited data management platforms, targeted specifically to their analytic needs, based upon analytic use cases, managed in a single integrated enterprise data management environment. The paper will focus on how several companies today are using Teradata s Integrated Hardware and Software UDA Platform to manage a single enterprise analytic environment, fight the ongoing proliferation of analytic data marts, and speed their operational analytic processes.
John Cunningham, Teradata Corporation
Paper 1702-2014:
Let SAS® Handle Your Job While You Are Not at Work!
Report automation and scheduling are very hot topics in many industries. They confer many advantages including reduced work load, elimination of repetitive tasks, generatation of accurate results, and better performance. This paper illustrates how to design an appropriate program to automate and schedule reports in SAS® 9.1 and SAS® Enterprise Guide® 5.1 using a SAS® server as well as the Windows Scheduler. The automation part includes good aspects of formatting Microsoft Excel tables using XML or VBA coding or any other formats, and conditional auto e-mailing with file attachments. We systematically walk through each step with a clear flow diagram from the data source to the final destination. We also discuss details of server-side and PC-side schedulers and how these schedulers involve invoking batch programs.
Anjan Matlapudi, AmerihealthCaritas
Paper 1751-2014:
Ordering Columns in a SAS® Data Set: Should You Really RETAIN That?
When viewing and working with SAS® data sets especially wide ones it s often instinctive to rearrange the variables (columns) into some intuitive order. The RETAIN statement is one of the most commonly cited methods used for ordering variables. Though RETAIN can perform this task, its use as an ordering clause can cause a host of easily missed problems due to its intended function of retaining values across DATA step iterations. This risk is especially great for the more novice SAS programmer. Instead, two equally effective and less risky ways to order data set variables are recommended, namely, the FORMAT and SQL SELECT statements.
Andrew Clapson, Statistics Canada
Paper 1730-2014:
PROC TABULATE: Extending This Powerful Tool Beyond Its Limitations
PROC TABULATE is a powerful tool for creating tabular summary reports. Its advantages, over PROC REPORT, are that it requires less code, allows for more convenient table construction, and uses syntax that makes it easier to modify a table s structure. However, its inability to compute the sum, difference, product, and ratio of column sums has hindered its use in many circumstances. This paper illustrates and discusses some creative approaches and methods for overcoming these limitations, enabling users to produce needed reports and still enjoy the simplicity and convenience of PROC TABULATE. These methods and skills can have prominent applications in a variety of business intelligence and analytics fields.
Justin Jia, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC)
Amanda Lin, Bell Canada
Paper 1240-2014:
Powerful and Hard-to-find PROC SQL Features
The SQL procedure contains many powerful and elegant language features for intermediate and advanced SQL users. This presentation discusses topics that will help SAS® users unlock the many powerful features, options, and other gems found in the SQL universe. Topics include CASE logic; a sampling of summary (statistical) functions; dictionary tables; PROC SQL and the SAS macro language interface; joins and join algorithms; PROC SQL statement options _METHOD, MAGIC=101, MAGIC=102, and MAGIC=103; and key performance (optimization) issues.
Kirk Paul Lafler, Software Intelligence Corporation
Paper 1270-2014:
Programming With CLASS: Keeping Your Options Open
Many SAS® procedures use classification variables when they are processing the data. These variables control how the procedure forms groupings, summarizations, and analysis elements. For statistics procedures, they are often used in the formation of the statistical model that is being analyzed. Classification variables can be explicitly specified with a CLASS statement, or they can be specified implicitly from their usage in the procedure. Because classification variables have such a heavy influence on the outcome of so many procedures, it is essential that the analyst have a good understanding of how classification variables are applied. Certainly there are a number of options (system and procedural) that affect how classification variables behave. While you may be aware of some of these options, a great many are new, and some of these new options and techniques are especially powerful. You really need to be open to learning how to program with CLASS.
Art Carpenter, California Occidental Consultants
Paper 1868-2014:
Queues for Newbies . How to Speak LSF in a SAS® World
Can you juggle? Maybe. Can you shuffle a deck of cards? Probably. Can you do both at the same time? Welcome to the world of SAS® and LSF! Very few SAS Administrators start out learning LSF at the same time they learn SAS; most already know SAS, possibly starting out as a programmer or analyst, but now have to step up to an enterprise platform with shared resources. The biggest challenge on an enterprise platform? How to share! How to maximum the utilization of a SAS platform, yet still ensure everyone gets their fair share? This presentation will boil down the 2000+ pages of LSF documentation to provide an introduction into various LSF concepts: * Host * Clusters * Nodes * Queues * First-Come-First-Serve * Fairshare * and various configuration settings: UJOB_LIMIT, PJOB_LIMIT, etc. Plus some insight on where to configure all these settings which are set up by the installation process, and which can be configured by the SAS or LSF administrator. This session is definitely NOT for experts. It is for those about to step into an enterprise deployment of SAS, and want to understand how the SAS server sessions they know so well can run on a shared platform.
Andrew Howell, ANJ Solutions
Paper 1846-2014:
Revealing Human Mobility Behavior and Trips Prediction Based on Mobile Data Records
This paper reveals the human mobility behavior in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The base for this study is the mobile phone data provided by one of the largest mobile carriers in Brazil. Mobile phone data comprises a reasonable variety of information, including data about time and location for call activity throughout urban areas. This information might be used to build users trajectories over time, describing the major characteristics of the urban mobility within the city. A variety of distribution analyses is presented in this paper aiming clearly describes the most relevant characteristics of the overall mobility in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. In addition to that, methods from physics to describe trends in trips such as gravity and radiation models were computed and compared in terms of granularity of the geographic scales and also in relation to traditional data mining approach such as linear regressions. A brief comparison in terms of performance in predicting the amount of trips between pairs of locations is presented at the end.
Carlos Andre Reis Pinheiro, KU Leuven
Paper 1262-2014:
SAS® Installations: So you want to install SAS?
This discussion uses SAS® Office Analytics as an example to demonstrate the importance of preparing for the SAS® installation. There are many nuances as well as requirements that need to be addressed before you do an installation. These requirements are basically similar, yet they differ according to the target installation operating system. In other words, there are some differences in preparation routines for Windows and *Nix flavors. Our discussion focuses on these three topics: 1. Pre-installation considerations such as sizing, storage, proper credentials, and third-party requirements; 2. Installation steps and requirements; and 3. Post-installation configuration. In addition to preparation, this paper also discusses potential issues and pitfalls to watch out for, as well as best practices.
Rafi Sheikh, Analytiks International, Inc.
Paper 1569-2014:
SAS® for Bayesian Mediation Analysis
Statistical mediation analysis is common in business, social sciences, epidemiology, and related fields because it explains how and why two variables are related. For example, mediation analysis is used to investigate how product presentation affects liking the product, which then affects the purchase of the product. Mediation analysis evaluates the mechanism by which a health intervention changes norms that then change health behavior. Research on mediation analysis methods is an active area of research. Some recent research in statistical mediation analysis focuses on extracting accurate information from small samples by using Bayesian methods. The Bayesian framework offers an intuitive solution to mediation analysis with small samples; namely, incorporating prior information into the analysis when there is existing knowledge about the expected magnitude of mediation effects. Using diffuse prior distributions with no prior knowledge allows researchers to reason in terms of probability rather than in terms of (or in addition to) statistical power. Using SAS® PROC MCMC, researchers can choose one of two simple and effective methods to incorporate their prior knowledge into the statistical analysis, and can obtain the posterior probabilities for quantities of interest such as the mediated effect. This project presents four examples of using PROC MCMC to analyze a single mediator model with real data using: (1) diffuse prior information for each regression coefficient in the model, (2) informative prior distributions for each regression coefficient, (3) diffuse prior distribution for the covariance matrix of variables in the model, and (4) informative prior distribution for the covariance matrix.
Miočević Milica, Arizona State University
David MacKinnon, Arizona State University
Paper 1760-2014:
Scenarios Where Utilizing a Spline Model in Developing a Regression Model Is Appropriate
Linear regression has been a widely used approach in social and medical sciences to model the association between a continuous outcome and the explanatory variables. Assessing the model assumptions, such as linearity, normality, and equal variance, is a critical step for choosing the best regression model. If any of the assumptions are violated, one can apply different strategies to improve the regression model, such as performing transformation of the variables or using a spline model. SAS® has been commonly used to assess and validate the postulated model and SAS® 9.3 provides many new features that increase the efficiency and flexibility in developing and analyzing the regression model, such as ODS Statistical Graphics. This paper aims to demonstrate necessary steps to find the best linear regression model in SAS 9.3 in different scenarios where variable transformation and the implementation of a spline model are both applicable. A simulated data set is used to demonstrate the model developing steps. Moreover, the critical parameters to consider when evaluating the model performance are also discussed to achieve accuracy and efficiency.
Ning Huang, University of Southern California
Paper 1318-2014:
Secure SAS® OLAP Cubes with Top-Secret Permissions
SAS® OLAP technology is used to organize and present summarized data for business intelligence applications. It features flexible options for creating and storing aggregations to improve performance and brings a powerful multi-dimensional approach to querying data. This paper focuses on managing security features available to OLAP cubes through the combination of SAS metadata and MDX logic.
Stephen Overton, Overton Technologies, LLC
Paper 1800-2014:
Seven Steps to a SAS® Enterprise BI Proof-of-Concept
The Purchasing Department is considering contracting with your team for a new SAS® Enterprise BI application. He's already met with SAS® and seen the sales pitch, and he is very interested. But the manager is a tightwad and not sure about spending the money. Also, he wants his team to be the primary developers for this new application. Before investing his money on training, programming, and support, he would like a proof-of-concept. This paper will walk you through the seven steps to create a SAS Enterprise BI POC project: Develop a kick-off meeting including a full demo of the SAS Enterprise BI tools. Set up your UNIX file systems and security. Set up your SAS metadata ACTs, users, groups, folders, and libraries. Make sure the necessary SAS client tools are installed on the developers machines. Hold a SAS Enterprise BI workshop to introduce them to the basics, including SAS® Enterprise Guide®, SAS® Stored Processes, SAS® Information Maps, SAS® Web Report Studio, SAS® Information Delivery Portal, and SAS® Add-In for Microsoft Office, along with supporting documentation. Work with them to develop a simple project, one that highlights the benefits of SAS Enterprise BI and shows several methods for achieving the desired results. Last but not least, follow up! Remember, your goal is not to launch a full-blown application. Instead, we ll strive toward helping them see the potential in your organization for applying this methodology.
Sheryl Weise, Wells Fargo
Paper 1483-2014:
The Armchair Quarterback: Writing SAS® Code for the Perfect Pivot (Table, That Is)
'Can I have that in Excel?' This is a request that makes many of us shudder. Now your boss has discovered Microsoft Excel pivot tables. Unfortunately, he has not discovered how to make them. So you get to extract the data, massage the data, put the data into Excel, and then spend hours rebuilding pivot tables every time the corporate data is refreshed. In this workshop, you learn to be the armchair quarterback and build pivot tables without leaving the comfort of your SAS® environment. In this workshop, you learn the basics of Excel pivot tables and, through a series of exercises, you learn how to augment basic pivot tables first in Excel, and then using SAS. No prior knowledge of Excel pivot tables is required.
Peter Eberhardt, Fernwood Consulting Group Inc.
Paper 1269-2014:
The Many Ways of Creating Dashboards Using SAS®
For decades, SAS® has been the cornerstone of many organizations for business reporting. In more recent times, the ability to quickly determine the performance of an organization through the use of dashboards has become a requirement. Different ways of providing dashboard capabilities are discussed in this paper: using out-of-the-box solutions such as SAS® Visual Analytics and SAS® BI Dashboard, through to alternative solutions using SAS® Stored Processes, batch processes, and SAS® Integration Technologies. Extending the available indicators is also discussed, using Graph Template Language and KPI indicators provided with Base SAS®, as well as alternatives such as Google Charts and Flash objects. Real-world field experience, problem areas, solutions, and tips are shared, along with live examples of some of the different methods.
Mark Bodt, The Knowledge Warehouse (Knoware)
Paper 1557-2014:
The Query Builder: The Swiss Army Knife of SAS® Enterprise Guide®
The SAS® Enterprise Guide® Query Builder is one of the most powerful components of the software. It enables a user to bring in data, join, drop and add columns, compute new columns, sort, filter data, leverage the advanced expression builder, change column attributes, and more! This presentation provides an overview of the major features of this powerful tool and how to leverage it every day.
Jennifer First-Kluge, Systems Seminar Consultants
Steven First, Systems Seminar Consultants
Paper 1482-2014:
The SAS® Hash Object: It's Time to .find() Your Way Around
This is the way I have always done it and it works fine for me. Have you heard yourself or others say this when someone suggests a new technique to help solve a problem? Most of us have a set of tricks and techniques from which we draw when starting a new project. Over time we might overlook newer techniques because our old toolkit works just fine. Sometimes we actively avoid new techniques because our initial foray leaves us daunted by the steep learning curve to mastery. For me, the PRX functions and the SAS® hash object fell into this category. In this workshop, we address possible objections to learning to use the SAS hash object. We start with the fundamentals of setting up the hash object and work through a variety of practical examples to help you master this powerful technique.
Peter Eberhardt, Fernwood Consulting Group Inc.
Paper 1890-2014:
Tips for Moving from Base SAS® 9.3 to SAS® Enterprise Guide® 5.1
As a longtime Base SAS® programmer, whether to use a different application for programming is a constant question when powerful applications such as SAS® Enterprise Guide® are available. This paper provides some important tips for a programmer, such as the best way to use the code window and how to take advantage of system-generated code in SAS Enterprise Guide 5.1. This paper also explains the differences between some of the functions and procedures in Base SAS and SAS Enterprise Guide. It highlights features in SAS Enterprise Guide such as process flow, data access management, and report automation, including formatting using XML tag sets.
Anjan Matlapudi, AmerihealthCaritas
Paper 1786-2014:
Tips to Use Character String Functions in Record Lookup
This paper gives you a better idea of how and where to use the record lookup functions to locate observations where a variable has some characteristic. Various related functions are illustrated to search numeric and character values in this process. Code is shown with time comparisons. I will discuss three possible ways to retrieve records using the SAS® DATA step, PROC SQL, and Perl regular expressions. Real and CPU time processing issues will be highlighted when comparing to retrieve records using these methods. Although the program is written for the PC using SAS® 9.2 in a Windows XP 32-bit environment, all the functions are applicable to any system. All the tools discussed are in Base SAS®. The typical attendee or reader will have some experience in SAS, but not a lot of experience dealing with large amount of data.
Anjan Matlapudi, Amerihealth Critas
Paper 1403-2014:
Tricks Using SAS® Add-In for Microsoft Office
SAS® Add-In for Microsoft Office remains a popular tool for people who are not SAS® programmers due to its easy interface with the SAS servers. In this session, you'll learn some of the many tricks that other organizations use for getting more value out of the tool.
Tricia Aanderud, And Data Inc
Paper 1744-2014:
VFORMAT Lets SAS® Do the Format Searching
When reading data files or writing SAS® programs, we are often hunting for the right format or informat. There are so many to choose from! Does it seem like too many to search the manual? Let SAS help find the right one! We use the SAS dictionary table VFORMAT and a very small SAS program. This presentation demonstrates how two simple functions unlock the potential of this great resource: SASHELP.VFORMAT.
Peter Crawford, Crawford Software Consultancy Limited
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