the PDB that you are currently using. The name of the
active PDB is displayed across the top of the window in
the IT Service Vision window interface.
tasks that require write access to a PDB, SITELIB, or
PGMLIB; typically, tasks related to the IT Service Vision
a numeric variable used to calculate statistics or
display values. Usually an analysis variable contains
quantitative or continuous values, but this is not
detail level data that has been stored in a location
external to the PDB.
a file containing SAS statements that are executed
automatically when the SAS System is invoked. The
autoexec file can be used to specify some SAS system
options, as well as library and file references that you
the percentage of time that a system is available to
service the users' requests.
a one-dimensional line representing the scale used to
plot values of x, y, or z coordinates.
state in which work runs without interacting with the
user; one of the categories into which work can be
a variable named in a BY statement whose values define
groups of observations to process. In the Detail-level of
a table, a BY variable isone of a list of variables, the
BY variable list, that specifies the sort order and
grouping of the observations in the detail level of that
For reports, a BY variable is one of a list of variables,
the BY variables list, that specifies the sort order and
grouping of the data in the report, regardless of the
level in which the data resides. A separate report is
produced for every new combination of values of the BY
the process of tracking performance and workload volume
and comparing them over time to baseline values, in order
to anticipate when resource upgrades will be required.
see entry type or SAS catalog.
a graph in which graphics elements (bars, pie slices, and
so on) show the magnitude of a statistic. The graphics
elements can represent one data value or a range of data
in IT Service Vision, a variable used to group or
classify data. For PDB tables, class variables define the
groups for reducing data at the day, week, month, and
year levels of the PDB. For reporting, class variables
are used to group observations for graphic or tabular
see IT Service Vision client.
software that collects logged data that is related to IT
services; the collector may also be a data source.
UNIX utility for executing batch jobs on a periodic
UNIX background processes.
the software packages used to log IT Service Vision
performance data at regular intervals or at predefined
events. The data collection software may be part of IT
Service Vision, a facility of the operating system (such
as that provided by IBM), a products provided by a
third-party vendor, or user-written.
a SAS data library containing SAS data sets that
completely describe each table of performance data. The
data dictionary includes information on which
measurements are kept for each reduction level.
the process of summarizing data over time. Data reduction
decreases the storage that is required but still
preserves information for trend analysis.
software that logs data that is related to IT services.
the SAS statement that provides names for any SAS data
set being created. See the DATA statement in the SAS
Language Reference documentation for your current version
any group of methods for representing data in a visual or
graphical way; includes charts, static and rotating
plots, and other visual representations.
date and time format
in SAS software, the instructions that tell the SAS
System how to write numeric values as dates, times, and
performance data summarized for a full day. Day-level
data are summarized from detail-level data. See also
a component of the IT Service Vision client software that
uses interactive drill down techniques on reports created
from your data.
the point at which performance data enters the
performance data base (PDB). Detail-level data typically
contain a large portion of the data just as the data was
logged by the data-collection software. See also
performance database (PDB) and day-level, week-level,
in IT Service Vision, the term duplicate data has two
meanings: 1) observations that have identical values in
all of the BY or CLASS variables, and 2) observations
that have identical values in every variable. Which
meaning is intended is explained when the term is used.
in IT Service Vision 1) a value in seconds representing
the difference between length of time between
observations for interval data. 2) the length of time
represented in an observation in a record in an interval
a characteristic of a SAS catalog entry that identifies
its structure and attributes to the SAS System. When you
create an entry, the SAS System automatically assigns the
entry type as part of the name.
a user-written routine that executes at a specified point
in the supplied software.
a view that allows data that is not in the PDB to be
reduced directly into the non-detail levels of the PDB
and, therefore, bypass the process step.
a file created and maintained on the host operating
system from which you can read data or stored SAS
statements or in which you can write procedure output. An
external file is not a SAS data set.
a pattern that the SAS System uses to determine how a
variable value should be displayed. The SAS System
provides a set of standard formats and also enables you
to define your own custom formats.
a variable for which the values are calculated when the
variable is used. The formula variable's source
statements are not stored in the PDB; the formula
variable's values are not stored.
to produce a rough draft of a table definition from a SAS
data set or view. Also, a specific data dictionary
control statement that performs this function.
a facility that enables the use of staging code and
definition of tables for an additional data source.
a report using high-resolution graphics capabilities. See
also text report.
a value specified in a GOPTIONS statement that controls
some attribute of the graphics output. The values
specified remain in effect only for the duration of the
SAS session. Some graphics options override device
graphics output device
any terminal, printer, or other output device capable of
displaying or producing graphic output.
graphics stream file (GSF)
a file containing device-dependent graphics commands from
a SAS/GRAPH device driver. This file can be sent to a
graphics device or to other software packages.
graphical user interface; the interactive interface of IT
a variable that rarely changes andis used at one or more
reduction levels, for example, the volume name of a disk.
install a table
store a PDB's table definition (and associated control
statements) in the master data dictionary so that the
table definition can be used for other PDBs as if it were
a supplied table.
a series of connected networks based on the Internet
a worldwide network based on TCP/IP.
a global network of all networks within an organization
to estimate values between two or more known values.
any service an IT organization provides to customers,
such as computer system support, networks, applications,
phones, faxes, web pages, and so on.
IT Service Vision client
a host that has IT Service Vision software installed with
a client license. The client accesses PDB(s) on server
hosts through remote protocols such as TCP/IP. In the
current version of IT Service Vision, client access is
limited to read-only and includes support for reporting,
data visualization, and querying PDB definitions and
status, as well as the DeskTop Reporter and Showroom.
IT Service Vision server
a host that has IT Service Vision software installed with
a server license. The server has read/write access to the
PDB(s) and is used for processing and reducing data into
one or more PDBs that are accessible through the host's
file system(s). In addition, the server is used for PDB
administration and scheduling of batch/background work.
The server may also be used for reporting.
a parameter identified by name, as in
%macro_name(NAME=value);. Keyword parameters can be set
or defined in any order on the macro but must follow any
local area network.
a logical grouping of all data that is consolidated for a
specific unit of time. Within a table there are five
levels in which data are stored: Detail, Day, Week,
the first part of a multilevel SAS filename indicating
the SAS data library in which the file is stored. For
example, in the name SASUSER.ACCTS, the name SASUSER is
a PDB is considered local under the following conditions:
if your current host is a PC (running Windows 95 or
Windows NT), a PDB is local if it resides on a disk
attached to your current PC or it resides on a disk
available through your "Network Neighborhood."
If your current host is running UNIX, a PDB is local if
it resides on a disk attached to the local host or it
resides on a disk available through NFS, AFS, or DFS. If
your current host is MVS and you are not using SAS/SHARE,
your PDB is local when it resides on disks that are
physically connected to the MVS system on which you are
If your PDB is not accessible through one of these
methods it is considered a remote PDB.
a single CPU.
a portion of the SAS System used for extending and
customizing the SAS System and for reducing the amount of
text that must be entered to do common tasks. It consists
of the macro processor and the macro language.
macro code that can be run in batch.
a variable, belonging to the macro language, whose value
is a string that remains constant until you change it. A
macro variable is also called a symbolic variable.
maintain a table
apply changes to a PDB's table from a master data
dictionary that is more recent than the one from which
the table definition was obtained.
host on which the collector resides.
master data dictionary
the data dictionary that is shipped with IT Service
Vision; it contains table definitions (and the associated
variable definitions) that can be added to a PDB's data
the primary menu list that displays across the top of the
window. Groups of related actions or tasks are listed
under each menu. Selecting a menu displays the list of
menu items and selecting a menu item executes an action
or opens a dialog box requesting additional information.
a performance measurement, such as bytes per second
acronym for management information base. The virtual
database for data gathered by one or more SNMP agents.
migrate a table
add a table from the master data dictionary to a PDB's
data dictionary, and apply to the PDB's data dictionary
any control statements that are associated with the table
definition in the master data dictionary.
a value in the SAS System indicating that no data is
stored for the variable in the current observation. By
default, the SAS System prints a missing numeric value as
a single period (.) and a missing character value as a
software or hardware that observes and records selected
performance data that are summarized for a full month or
for the month-to-date.
a collection of SAS programs that operate on raw
performance data created by MVS, MVS/XA, VM, and DOS/VSE
operating systems and subsystems.
a configuration of data processing devices and software
that are connected for information exchange.
the process of monitoring, analyzing, and acting on
measurements and alert notifications collected from
various devices to facilitate computer communications.
network traffic pattern
the record of communications between devices.
an end point of a link, or a junction common to two or
more links in a network. A node may be a processor, a
controller, or a workstation.
a row in a SAS data set. Typically, one observation
corresponds to a record that is read from or written to a
a data item passed to a routine. In SAS macro, a constant
or variable passed tothe macro routine when invoking it.
See also keyword parameter and positional parameter.
see performance data warehouse.
PDB's data dictionary
the data dictionary that resides in the PDB and manages
the tables in the PDB; the DICTLIB library in the PDB.
performance data warehouse
a data warehouse (PDB) that contains detailed and
summarized performance data, and other information
necessary to manage the data. The PDB also contains the
various reduced levels of data for longer time periods
(day, week, month, and year levels), a data dictionary
that describes the contents of the performance data, and
a collection of tables that span the reduction levels.
permanent SAS data library
a library that is not deleted when the SAS session
terminates; it is available for subsequent SAS sessions.
Unless the USER libref is defined, you use a two-level
name to access a file in a permanent library. The
first-level name is the libref, and the second-level name
is the member name.
one of the SAS libraries in which IT Service Vision
in SAS/GRAPH software, a graph showing the relationship
between variables. The coordinates of each point on the
graph represent the values you plot.
the process of contacting data stations to request them
to transmit their status.
in SAS macro, a parameter identified only by the posiion
of the parameter in the macro definition and invocation.
Positional parameters must be separated by commas or a
comma must be inserted as a placeholder, to indicate that
the parameter is not being used. For example, if filename
is the second positional parameter on a macro, you would
either type the name of your data file in the second
position (parm1, filename, parm3), or use a comma as a
placeholder (parm1, , parm3).
see SAS procedure.
in IT Service vision software, to transform raw data
collected by data collection software, into a
detail-level SAS data library in a performance database.
The incoming data is usually stored in a raw data file,
but in some cases, it is already be stored in a SAS data
a set of rules that determine the behavior of functional
units in achieving communication. For example, the TCP/IP
protocol is a set of rules for network communication.
the list of menu items or choices that appear when you
choose an item from the menu bar or another menu.
data that have not been read into a SAS data set.
to decrease the quantity of stored data either by
dropping variables in the data as it ages or by
calculating summary statistics to represent the values of
variables for multiple observations. Reduced data are
summarized into day-level, week-level, month-level, and
all of the performance data that is summarized for a
specific unit of time. The four reduction levels are day,
week, month, and year. The data at a given reduction
level is stored in a corresponding library. For example,
data summarized by day is stored in the DAY library of
a PDB is considered remote if it is NOT accessible
through one of the following methods. If your current
host is a PC (running Windows 95 or Windows NT), a PDB is
local if it resides on a disk attached to your current PC
or if it resides on a disk available through your
"Network Neighborhood." If your current host is
running UNIX, a PDB is local if it resides on a disk
attached to the local host or if it resides on a disk
available through NFS, AFS, or DFS.
graph or text that is generated by running a report
specifications for generating a report.The report
definition includes items such as the table and variable
names, the report style, labels, formats, and other
the amount of time between the completion of a request
for service and the system's response to that request.
a remote monitor.
a list and description of the information sources related
to IT Service Vision
determines the network path to be used for transmission.
a SAS file that stores many different kinds of
information in smaller units called catalog entries. A
single SAS catalog can contain several different types of
SAS data library
a collection of one or more SAS files that are recognized
by the SAS System and that are referenced and stored as a
unit. Each file is a member of the library on UNIX or the
PC. On MVS, the units are stored as one file.
SAS data set
data values that are organized as a table of observations
and variables that can be processed by the SAS System. A
SAS data set also contains a descriptor for each of the
columns in a table.
SAS data view
a SAS data set in which the descriptor information and
the observations are obtained from other files. SAS data
views store only the information required to retrieve
data values or descriptor information.
SAS date value
an integer representing a date in the SAS System. The
integer represents the number of days between January 1,
1960, and another specified date. For example, the SAS
date value 366 represents the calendar date January 1,
SAS datetime constant
a string in the form 'ddMMMyy:
hh: mm: ss'dt or 'ddMMMyyyy:
hh: mm: ss'dt representing a date and
time in the SAS System. The string should be enclosed in
quotes and followed by the characters dt, for
SAS datetime value
an integer representing a date and time in the SAS
System. The integer represents the number of seconds
between midnight, January 1, 1960, and another date and
time that you specify or that is specified in your data.
For example, the SAS datetime value for 9:30 AM, June 5,
1989, is 928661400.
SAS Display Manager System
an interactive, window interface to SAS System software.
Display manager commands can be issued by typing them on
the command line, pressing function keys, or selecting
items from the PMENU facility. Within one session, many
different tasks can be accomplished, including preparing
and submitting programs, viewing and printing results,
and debugging and resubmitting programs.
a file that contains a record of the executed SAS
statements you enter and messages about the execution of
a name that is assigned to items such as variables and
SAS data sets. SAS names can be up to eight characters
long. The first character must be a letter or an
underscore. Subsequent characters can be letters,
numbers, or underscores. Blanks and special characters
(except the underscore) are not allowed. In IT Service
Vision the name can be a maximum of seven characters
a program accessed with a PROC statement that produces
reports, manages files, or analyzes data. Many procedures
are included with the SAS System. In addition, users can
write their own procedures using SAS/TOOLKIT software;
these are called user-written procedures.
a group of SAS statements that guide the SAS System
through a process or series of processes.
a string (of SAS keywords, SAS names, and special
characters and operators) that ends with a semicolon. A
SAS statement instructs the SAS System to perform an
operation or gives information to the SAS System.
SAS system option
an option that affects processing the entire SAS program
or interactive SAS session from the time the option is
specified until it is changed or the SAS session ends.
Examples of items controlled by SAS system options
include appearance of SAS output, handling of some files
used by the SAS System, user of system variables,
processing observations in SAS data sets, features of SAS
System initialization, and the SAS System's interface
with your computer hardware and with the host operation
physical layout of logged/collected data.
see IT Service Vision server.
the levels of throughput and response time for a system
that are mutually accepted by the users and the systems
administrators and management.
customizing the collector and IT Service Vision to enable
data from the collector to be processed into a PDB and
reduced in the PDB.
a component of the software that contains
collector-related examples and instructions for
web-enabling reports generated by IT Service Vision.
sinple index variable
a variable for which an index is build. The index
contains information on the values of the variable and
the observations on which the values reside.
a data structure that stores site-related information.
Systems Network Architecture.
an acronym for Simple Network Management Protocol, which
is a protocol or standard that is used to exchange
network management information.
reading raw data, optionally transforming it, and writing
it to a SAS data set.
a particular section of the network. It is also called
collector for which IT Service Vision supplies table
definitions and staging code for using the data with IT
Service Vision; also, the table definitions and staging
code supplied with IT Service Vision.
managing available computer resources.
see SAS system option.
in IT Service Vision, a logical collection of data that
includes all levels in the PDB for the same topic of
information. All of the data sets in a table have the
same data structure, but they do not necessarily have the
same variables. A table consists of a single SAS data set
from each of the five data libraries, DETAIL, DAY, WEEK,
MONTH, and YEAR.
the instructions for creating the associated table. To
create a table you must first create and run a table
a report that tabulates or prints data values.
the rate at which requests for work are serviced by a
the name of the software that converts collected data
into temporary SAS data sets. The data are processed into
the detail level of the performance database.
the process of tracking daily network and system
performance, comparing them to service objectives to
identify bottlenecks and hardware problems, and then
adjusting the system to eliminate the problems. Tuning
also involves balancing activity across networks and
devices to optimize the use of these resources.
tasks that do not require write access to a PDB, SITELIB,
or PGMLIB; typically, tasks related to the IT Service
1) the fractional usage of a resource that can be
partially occupied, for example, memory. 2) the ratio of
time that a resource is being used to the total elapsed
time, for resources that cannot be partially busy, for
example, a CPU.
a column in a SAS data set. A variable is a set of data
values that describe a given characteristic across all
in IT Service Vision, a view is a term for the data for
one level in a table plus any data constructed from that
data by the view.
a tool such as Internet Explorer, Netscape, or Mosaic
that you use to access information on the Internet or
your company's intranet.
performance data that are summarized for a full week or
a variable whose values represent the weights for each
a type of SAS expression used to specify a condition for
selecting observations for processing by a DATA or PROC
a visibly bounded area that displays text or graphical
information or presents a space for you to communicate
with a computer system.
see SAS Display Manager System.
the amount of work a system is experiencing. Workload can
be measured in terms of characters per second, processes
per second, or transactions per second.
write a collector
write the table definitions and staging code for
processing data from a given collector into a PDB
performance data that is summarized for a full year or