At the end of a trial, the hypothesis is either rejected or accepted. But the p-value, median, and confidence limits depend on the ordering the sample space , where k is the stage number and z is the standardized Z statistic.
Following the notations used in Jennison and Turnbull (2000, pp. 179–180), if has a higher order or more extreme than . Then for a given ordering, the p-value, median, and confidence limits associated with the observed statistics can be derived.