
CPREFIX= n

specifies that, at most, the first n characters of a
CLASS variable name be used in creating names for the corresponding dummy variables. The default is , where f is the formatted length of the CLASS variable.

DESCENDING
DESC

reverses the sort order of the classification variable.

LPREFIX= n

specifies that, at most, the first n characters of a CLASS variable label
be used in creating labels for the corresponding dummy variables.

ORDER=DATA  FORMATTED  FREQ  INTERNAL

specifies the order in which to sort the levels of the classification
variables. This option applies to the levels for all classification variables, except when you use the (default) ORDER=FORMATTED
option with numeric classification variables that have no explicit format. In that case, the levels of such variables are
ordered by their internal value.
The ORDER= option can take the following values:
Value of ORDER=

Levels Sorted By

DATA

Order of appearance in the input data set

FORMATTED

External formatted value, except for numeric variables with no explicit format, which are sorted by their unformatted (internal)
value

FREQ

Descending frequency count; levels with the most observations come first in the order

INTERNAL

Unformatted value

By default, ORDER=FORMATTED. For ORDER=FORMATTED and ORDER=INTERNAL, the sort order is machinedependent. For more information
about sort order, see the chapter on the SORT procedure in the
Base SAS Procedures Guide and the discussion of BYgroup processing in
SAS Language Reference: Concepts.

PARAM=keyword

specifies the parameterization method for the classification variable
or variables. Design matrix columns are created from CLASS variables according to the following coding schemes; the default
is PARAM=EFFECT.
 EFFECT

specifies effect coding
 GLM

specifies lessthanfullrank, reference cell coding; this option can be used only as a global option
 ORDINAL

specifies the cumulative parameterization for an ordinal CLASS variable
 POLYNOMIAL  POLY

specifies polynomial coding
 REFERENCE  REF

specifies reference cell coding
 ORTHEFFECT

orthogonalizes PARAM=EFFECT
 ORTHORDINAL  ORTHOTHERM

orthogonalizes PARAM=ORDINAL
 ORTHPOLY

orthogonalizes PARAM=POLYNOMIAL
 ORTHREF

orthogonalizes PARAM=REFERENCE
If PARAM=ORTHPOLY or PARAM=POLY, and the CLASS levels are numeric, then the ORDER= option in the CLASS statement is ignored,
and the internal, unformatted values are used.
EFFECT, POLYNOMIAL, REFERENCE, ORDINAL, and their orthogonal parameterizations are full rank. The REF= option in the CLASS
statement determines the reference level for EFFECT, REFERENCE, and their orthogonal parameterizations.
Parameter names for a CLASS predictor variable are constructed by concatenating the CLASS variable name with the CLASS levels.
However, for the POLYNOMIAL and orthogonal parameterizations, parameter names are formed by concatenating the CLASS variable
name and keywords that reflect the parameterization.

REFERENCE=’level’  keyword
REF=’level’  keyword

specifies the reference level for PARAM=EFFECT or
PARAM=REFERENCE. For an individual (but not a global) variable REF= option, you can specify the level of the variable to use as the reference level. For a global or individual variable REF= option, you can use one of the following keywords. The default is REF=LAST.
 FIRST

designates the first ordered level as reference
 LAST

designates the last ordered level as reference