BY Statement

BY variables ;

You can specify a BY statement with PROC SURVEYFREQ to obtain separate analyses of observations in groups that are defined by the BY variables.

Note that using a BY statement provides completely separate analyses of the BY groups. It does not provide a statistically valid domain (subpopulation) analysis, where the total number of units in the subpopulation is not known with certainty. You should include the domain variable(s) in your TABLES request to obtain domain analysis. See the section Domain Analysis for more details.

If you specify more than one BY statement, the procedure uses only the last BY statement and ignores any previous BY statements.

When you use a BY statement, the procedure expects the input data set to be sorted in order of the BY variables. If your input data set is not sorted in ascending order, use one of the following alternatives:

  • Sort the data by using the SORT procedure with a similar BY statement.

  • Specify the NOTSORTED or DESCENDING option in the BY statement. The NOTSORTED option does not mean that the data are unsorted but rather that the data are arranged in groups (according to values of the BY variables) and that these groups are not necessarily in alphabetical or increasing numeric order.

  • Create an index on the BY variables by using the DATASETS procedure (in Base SAS software).

For more information about the BY-group processing, see the discussion in SAS Language Reference: Concepts. For more information about the DATASETS procedure, see the Base SAS Procedures Guide.