access method
See communications access method.
aggregate storage location
a location in an operating system that can contain a group of distinct files. The exact name for this location varies by operating system; for example, directory, folder, or partitioned data set.
the manner in which numeric data and character data are represented internally in a particular operating environment. Architecture encompasses standards or conventions for storing floating-point numbers (IEEE or IBM 390); for character encoding (ASCII or EBCDIC); for the ordering of bytes in memory (big Endian or little Endian); for word alignment (4-byte boundaries or 8-byte boundaries); and for data-type length (16-bit, 32-bit, or 64-bit).
ASCII mnemonic
the name of an ASCII control character that you can specify in a program in order to invoke the associated function. For example, NUL represents the null character, CR represents carriage return, and so on.
asynchronous processing
a type of server processing that enables you to submit multiple tasks to one or more server sessions that execute in parallel, thus making efficient use of time and resources. Client processing resumes immediately. That is, you do not wait for the server processing to complete before control is returned to the client session.
See client authentication.
autoexec file
a file that contains SAS statements that are executed automatically when SAS is invoked. The autoexec file can be used to specify some of the SAS system options, as well as to assign librefs and filerefs to data sources that are used frequently.
backing store
a SAS utility file that is written to the client SASWORK directory.
batch mode
a noninteractive method of running SAS programs by which a file (containing SAS statements along with any necessary operating system commands) is submitted to the batch queue of the operating environment for execution.
the name of the base 2 number system. A binary digit can have one of two values: 0 or 1. A binary digit is called a bit and is considered to be off when its value is 0 and on when its value is 1.
binary file
a file that is stored in binary format, which cannot be edited using a text editor. Binary files are usually executable, but they can contain only data.
See statement block.
break signal
an asynchronous protocol signal indicating that the normal flow of data should be interrupted.
Break window
a special class of windows for SAS/CONNECT software. Break windows enable you to handle error conditions and interruptions that are caused by break signals that you issue.
carriage-control character
a symbol that tells a printer how many lines to advance the paper, when to begin a new page, when to skip a line, and when to hold the current line for overprinting.
See SAS catalog.
catalog entry
See SAS catalog entry.
a feature of SAS software that enables a SAS data file that was created in any directory-based operating environment (for example, Solaris, Windows, HP-UX, OpenVMS, and z/OS) to be read by a SAS session that is running in another directory-based environment. You can access the SAS data files without using any intermediate conversion steps. Short form: CEDA.
character set
a collection of characters that are used by a language or group of languages. A character set includes national characters, special characters, the digits 0-9, and control characters.
one or more characters appended to the end of a data block for error-checking purposes.
client authentication
the process of verifying the identity of a person or process for security purposes.
command file
a file that contains operating system commands to be executed in sequence.
Communication Services Break Handler window
one of two possible windows that are displayed when a server session is interrupted by a break signal or when there is an error in a statement that is submitted to the server.
communications access method
an interface between SAS and the network protocol or interface that is used to connect two operating environments. Depending on the operating environments, SAS/SHARE and SAS/CONNECT use either the TCP/IP or XMS communications access method.
Compute Services
a feature of SAS/CONNECT that enables a SAS/CONNECT client to distribute SAS processing to one or more SAS/CONNECT server sessions and to maintain control of these server sessions and their results from the single client session. Compute Services are implemented via the RSUBMIT and ENDRSUBMIT statements. Short form: CS.
configuration file
an external file containing the SAS system options that define the environment in which to run SAS. These system options take effect each time you invoke SAS.
control character
a type of character that is used for control purposes rather than for information exchange. Control characters are usually nonprintable.
Cross-Environment Data Access
Cross-Memory Services
See XMS.
See Compute Services.
data set
See SAS data set.
Data Transfer Services
a feature of SAS/CONNECT software that enables data to be transferred between a SAS/CONNECT client and a SAS/CONNECT server, regardless of the operating environment, the computer architectures, and the SAS release that is being used. Short form: DTS.
data translation
the automatic conversion of the internal representation of character and numeric data that occurs when the data is transferred between SAS/CONNECT client and server computers that run under different operating environments. For example, data that was created under UNIX is automatically converted to the Windows data representation when it is transferred to a Windows operating environment.
data view
See SAS data view.
descriptor information
information about the contents and attributes of a SAS data set. For example, the descriptor information includes the data types and lengths of the variables, as well as which engine was used to create the data. SAS creates and maintains descriptor information within every SAS data set.
See Data Transfer Services.
a family of single-byte and multi-byte encodings for the representation of data on IBM mainframe and mid-range computers. EBCDIC encodes the uppercase and lowercase letters of the English alphabet, punctuation marks, the digits 0-9, and an extended set of control characters. Short form: EBCDIC
the act or process of converting data to a form that is unintelligible except to the intended recipients.
a component of SAS software that reads from or writes to a file. Various engines enable SAS to access different types of file formats.
entry type
a characteristic of a SAS catalog entry that identifies the catalog entry's structure and attributes to SAS. When you create a SAS catalog entry, SAS automatically assigns the entry type as part of the name.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
external database
a database that stores data that is not part of the SAS System. For example, DB2, Oracle, and Sybase are types of external databases.
external file
a file that is created and maintained by a host operating system or by another vendor's software application. An external file can read both data and stored SAS statements.
file reference
See fileref.
file specification
the name of an external file. This name is the name by which the host operating environment recognizes the file. On directory-based systems, the file specification can be either the complete pathname or the relative pathname from the current working directory.
a name that is temporarily assigned to an external file or to an aggregate storage location such as a directory or a folder. The fileref identifies the file or the storage location to SAS.
global option
an option that affects the processing of an entire SAS program or interactive SAS session from the time the option is specified until it is changed. Examples of items that are controlled by SAS system options include the appearance of SAS output, the handling of some files that are used by SAS, the use of system variables, the processing of observations in SAS data sets, features of SAS initialization, and the way SAS interacts with your host operating environment.
GRLINK driver
a device driver that enables you to execute graphics statements on a server but to display the resulting graphs on a client. In order to provide this functionality, the GRLINK driver must be installed on the server.
interactive line mode
a method of running SAS programs in which you enter one line of a SAS program at a time at the SAS session prompt. SAS processes each line immediately after you press the ENTER or RETURN key. Procedure output and informative messages are returned directly to your display device.
Internet Protocol Version 4
See IPv4.
Internet Protocol Version 6
See IPv6.
IP address
a unique network address that is assigned to each computer that is connected to the Internet. The IP address can be specified in either of two formats: Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) or Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6). The IPv4 format consists of four parts in dot-decimal notation, as in 123.456.789.0. The IPv6 format can consist of up to eight groups of four hexadecimal characters, delimited by colons, as in FE80:0000:0000:0000:0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329.
a protocol that specifies the format for network addresses for all computers that are connected to the Internet. This protocol, which is the predecessor of Internet Protocol Version 6, uses dot-decimal notation to represent 32-bit address spaces. An example of an Internet Protocol Version 4 address is Short form: IPv4.
a protocol that specifies the format for network addresses for all computers that are connected to the Internet. This protocol, which is the successor of Internet Protocol Version 4, uses hexadecimal notation to represent 128-bit address spaces. The format can consist of up to eight groups of four hexadecimal characters, delimited by colons, as in FE80:0000:0000:0000:0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329. As an alternative, a group of consecutive zeros could be replaced with two colons, as in FE80::0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329. Short form: IPv6
library reference
See libref.
a SAS name that is associated with the location of a SAS library. For example, in the name MYLIB.MYFILE, MYLIB is the libref, and MYFILE is a file in the SAS library.
libref inheritance
a feature that enables libraries that are defined in a client session to be inherited by a server session for read and write access. Libref inheritance occurs during sign-on and during remotely submitted executions.
line mode
See interactive line mode.
local data
data that is accessed through a SAS server on your computer. The data can be stored either on your hard drive or on a network file system, such as a Novell file server, that makes the physical location of the data transparent to applications.
local session
a SAS session running on the local host. The local session accepts SAS statements and passes those that are remote-submitted to the remote host for processing. The local session manages the output and messages from both the local session and the remote session.
See SAS log.
macro facility
a component of Base SAS software that you can use for extending and customizing SAS programs and for reducing the amount of text that must be entered in order to perform common tasks. The macro facility consists of the macro processor and the macro programming language.
macro variable
a variable that is part of the SAS macro programming language. The value of a macro variable is a string that remains constant until you change it. Macro variables are sometimes referred to as symbolic variables.
member name
a name that is assigned to a SAS file in a SAS library.
member type
a SAS name that identifies the type of information that is stored in a SAS file. Member types include ACCESS, AUDIT, DMBD, DATA, CATALOG, FDB, INDEX, ITEMSTOR, MDDB, PROGRAM, UTILITY, and VIEW.
a feature of SAS/CONNECT software that uses multiple CPUs to process tasks in parallel. Multiprocessing can be used within an operating environment that has SMP hardware, across operating environments, or both. Short form: MP CONNECT.
Multi-Processing CONNECT
a row in a SAS data set. All of the data values in an observation are associated with a single entity such as a customer or a state. Each observation contains either one data value or a missing-value indicator for each variable.
operating environment
a computer, or a logical partition of a computer, and the resources (such as an operating system and other software and hardware) that are available to the computer or partition.
a grouping of printable characters, a sequence number, and a checksum, which are transmitted over the link as a unit. SAS/CONNECT clients and servers use these specially formatted packets to communicate with each other.
permanent SAS library
a SAS library that is not deleted when a SAS session ends, and which is therefore available to subsequent SAS sessions.
pipeline parallelism
a SAS/CONNECT feature that accelerates throughput by enabling data to be piped from one process to another in an SMP environment. Pipeline parallelism enables the execution of SAS DATA steps and SAS procedures to overlap, with only a single pass through the data. Rather than waiting for one process to completely finish writing output, piping starts to execute the waiting process as soon as the first process starts to generate data. In addition, piping the data saves both time and disk space because it eliminates the intermediate step of writing data to disk.
an extension to MP CONNECT functionality that enables you to run multiple dependent processes asynchronously. Piping improves performance for some tasks by writing output to TCP/IP ports instead of to disk.
in a network that uses the TCP/IP protocol, an endpoint of a logical connection between a client and a server. Each port is represented by a unique number.
REMOTE engine
a SAS library engine that enables a client to access data on a server.
Remote Library Services
a feature of SAS/SHARE and SAS/CONNECT software that enables you to read, write, and update remote data as if it were stored on the client. RLS can be used to access SAS data sets on computers that have different architectures. RLS also provides read-only access to some types of SAS catalog entries on computers that have different architectures. Short form: RLS.
remote processing
the use of communications software to process local programs with a server's CPU resources. In SAS/CONNECT software, the output and messages from a program that runs on the server are displayed on the client.
remote session
a SAS session that is running in a special mode on the remote host. No output or log messages are displayed on the remote host. Instead, the results of a remote SAS session are transmitted back to the log file and output files on the local host.
remotely submit
to use the RSUBMIT command or statement to submit statements from a SAS/CONNECT client session to be executed in a SAS/CONNECT server session.
See Remote Library Services.
SAS catalog
a SAS file that stores many different kinds of information in smaller units called catalog entries. A single SAS catalog can contain different types of catalog entries.
SAS catalog entry
a separate storage unit within a SAS catalog. Each entry has an entry type that identifies its purpose to SAS.
SAS command
a command that invokes SAS. This command can vary depending on the operating environment and site.
SAS console log
a file that contains information, warning, and error messages if the SAS log is not active. The SAS console log is normally used only for fatal system initialization errors or for late-termination messages.
SAS data file
a type of SAS data set that contains data values as well as descriptor information that is associated with the data. The descriptor information includes information such as the data types and lengths of the variables, as well as the name of the engine that was used to create the data.
SAS data set
a file whose contents are in one of the native SAS file formats. There are two types of SAS data sets: SAS data files and SAS data views. SAS data files contain data values in addition to descriptor information that is associated with the data. SAS data views contain only the descriptor information plus other information that is required for retrieving data values from other SAS data sets or from files whose contents are in other software vendors' file formats.
SAS data view
a type of SAS data set that retrieves data values from other files. A SAS data view contains only descriptor information such as the data types and lengths of the variables (columns) plus other information that is required for retrieving data values from other SAS data sets or from files that are stored in other software vendors' file formats. Short form: data view.
SAS file
a specially structured file that is created, organized, and maintained by SAS. A SAS file can be a SAS data set, a catalog, a stored program, an access descriptor, a utility file, a multidimensional database file, a financial database file, a data mining database file, or an item store file.
SAS library
one or more files that are defined, recognized, and accessible by SAS and that are referenced and stored as a unit. Each file is a member of the library.
SAS log
a file that contains a record of the SAS statements that you enter, as well as messages about the execution of your program.
SAS Management Console
a Java application that provides a single user interface for performing SAS administrative tasks.
SAS Metadata Repository
a container for metadata that is managed by the SAS Metadata Server.
SAS Metadata Server
a multi-user server that enables users to read metadata from or write metadata to one or more SAS Metadata Repositories.
SAS view
a type of SAS data set that retrieves data values from other files. A SAS view contains only descriptor information such as the data types and lengths of the variables (columns), plus other information that is required for retrieving data values from other SAS data sets or from files that are stored in other software vendors' file formats. SAS views can be created by the SAS DATA step, as well as by the SAS SQL procedure.
SAS/CONNECT attention handler window
one of two possible windows that are displayed when a server session is interrupted by a break signal. This window offers the following selections: abort current remote processing or continue processing the current remote submit.
a SAS session that receives services, data, or other resources from a specified server. The server can run on the same computer as the client or on a different computer (across a network).
a SAS session that delivers services, data, or other resources to a requesting client. The server can run on the same computer as the client, or on a networked computer.
a program that runs on a remote computer and that listens for SAS/CONNECT client requests for connection to the remote computer. When the spawner program receives a request, it invokes a SAS session on the remote computer.
an add-on product that uses the RC2, RC4, DES, and TripleDES encryption algorithms. SAS/SECURE requires a license, and it must be installed on each computer that runs a client and a server that will use the encryption algorithms. SAS/SECURE provides a high level of security.
SAS/SHARE client
a SAS/SHARE session that acts as a client. The user who runs a SAS/SHARE client accesses data on a SAS/SHARE server through Remote Library Services (RLS).
SAS/SHARE server
the result of an execution of the SERVER procedure, which is part of SAS/SHARE software. A server runs in a separate SAS session that services users' SAS sessions by controlling and executing input and output requests to one or more SAS libraries.
a socket engine for SAS/CONNECT software. Using the SASESOCK engine enables a SAS/CONNECT client or a SAS/CONNECT server to associate a libref with a TCP/IP pipe (instead of with a physical disk device) for I/O processing. The SASESOCK engine is required for SAS/CONNECT applications that implement MP CONNECT with piping.
SASProprietary algorithm
a fixed encoding algorithm that is included with Base SAS software. The SASProprietary algorithm requires no additional SAS product licenses. It provides a medium level of security.
a representation of the name for the directory or folder in which SAS is installed at a site or a computer.
an external file that contains SAS script statements. The script file is stored on a client and provides instructions for establishing and terminating a SAS/CONNECT session. Script files are executed by the SIGNON and SIGNOFF commands.
script statement
a special kind of SAS statement that was developed for use in scripts for SAS/CONNECT software. Script statements are used only in scripts.
server session
a SAS session that runs in a special mode on a server. No log messages or output are displayed on the server. Instead, the results of a server session are transmitted back to the log file and output files on the client.
services file
a file that contains a list of service names and the TCP/IP ports that are mapped to those services. The services file is stored on both the SAS client and the SAS server. The UNIX services file is located in /etc/services. A service can be specified for any of the following: a SAS/CONNECT spawner, a SAS/SHARE server, an MP CONNECT pipe, and a firewall server.
See symmetric multiprocessing.
the endpoint of a connection in a TCP/IP network. A socket is the combination of a TCP port and an IP address. By analogy, a socket is like a telephone to which a telephone number has been assigned. The TCP port is like a telephone number, and the IP address is like the location of the telephone.
See SAS/CONNECT spawner.
See Structured Query Language.
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
a protocol that provides network security and privacy. SSL uses encryption algorithms RC2, RC4, DES, TripleDES, and AES. SSL provides a high level of security. It was developed by Netscape Communications.
statement block
a group of statements that has both a logical beginning and ending statement. For example, a LAYOUT statement along with its ENDLAYOUT statement and all contained statements are a block. Some blocks can be nested within other blocks.
statement label
a SAS name followed by a colon that prefixes a statement in a DATA step so that other statements can direct execution to that statement as necessary, bypassing other statements in the step.
Structured Query Language
a standardized, high-level query language that is used in relational database management systems to create and manipulate objects in a database management system. SAS implements SQL through the SQL procedure. Short form: SQL.
symmetric multiprocessing
a hardware and software architecture that can improve the speed of I/O and processing. An SMP machine has multiple CPUs and a thread-enabled operating system. An SMP machine is usually configured with multiple controllers and with multiple disk drives per controller. Short form: SMP.
synchronous processing
a type of processing in which a SAS/CONNECT server session must finish executing a process before control is returned to a SAS/CONNECT client session.
an abbreviation for a pair of networking protocols. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a standard protocol for transferring information on local area networks such as Ethernets. TCP ensures that process-to-process information is delivered in the appropriate order. Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol for managing connections between operating environments. IP routes information through the network to a particular operating environment and fragments and reassembles information in transfers.
Teletypewriter Network Protocol
See Telnet.
a program that provides virtual terminal services that enable you to log on to a server from a terminal that is connected to a client. The client performs as if it were physically connected to the server. Short form: Telnet.
an error condition that is produced when a required response from a device or program is not received after a specified length of time.
the successor to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) V3.0. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) adopted SSL V3.0 as the de facto standard, made some modifications, and renamed it TLS. TLS is virtually SSLV3.1. Short form: TLS.
translation table
an operating environment-specific SAS catalog entry that is used to translate the value of one character to another. Translation tables often are needed to support the use of multiple national languages in an application. An example of a translation table is one that converts characters from EBCDIC to ASCII-ISO.
Transport Layer Security
See TLS.
to copy a file from the local host to the remote host, or from a client to a server.
a cross-task communication interface that is part of z/OS. XMS is used by programs that run within a single z/OS operating environment. XMS is also the name of the SAS communications access method that uses XMS for client/server communication. Short form: XMS.