American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
a 7-bit encoding standard that provides a basic set of 128 characters, supporting a variety of computer systems. ASCII encodes the uppercase and lowercase letters of the English alphabet, punctuation marks, the digits 0-9, and control characters. This set of 128 characters is also included in most other encodings. See also EBCDIC.
ASCII collating sequence
the rules that are used by a specific ASCII encoding for sorting textual data. Sort order is determined by the location of each code point in the code page of an ASCII encoding. In the Windows Latin1 code page, the sort order of precedence is punctuation characters, numbers, uppercase characters, and lowercase characters. Because the uppercase A (code point 41) precedes the lowercase g (code point 67), A is sorted before g.
autocall macro
a macro whose uncompiled source code and text are stored in an autocall macro library. Unlike a stored compiled macro, an autocall macro is compiled before execution the first time it is called.
a file containing SAS statements that are executed automatically when SAS is invoked. The autoexec file can be used to specify some SAS system options, as well as to assign librefs and filerefs to folders or directories that are used frequently.
automatic macro variable
a macro variable that is defined by SAS rather than by the user and that supplies information about the SAS session. For example, the SYSPROCESSID automatic macro variable contains the process ID of the current SAS process.
See SAS application workspace.
batch file
a file that contains operating-system commands, which are processed sequentially when the file is executed.
batch mode
a noninteractive method of running SAS programs by which a file (containing SAS statements along with any necessary operating system commands) is submitted to the batch queue of the operating environment for execution.
the name of the base 2 number system. A binary digit can have one of two values: 0 or 1. A binary digit is called a bit and is considered to be off when its value is 0 and on when its value is 1. See also binary file.
binary file
a file that is stored in binary format, which cannot be edited using a text editor. Binary files are usually executable, but they can contain only data.
a small, fast memory area that holds recently accessed data. The cache is designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data.
central processing unit
See CPU.
character constant (character literal)
a character string that is enclosed in quotation marks in a SAS statement to indicate a fixed value rather than the name of a variable. The maximum number of characters that is allowed is 32,767. Character constants are sometimes referred to as character literals. See also character string.
character encoding
a mapping of an abstract character repertoire to a set of numeric values. Character encodings are used in computation, data storage, and transmission of textual data. A character encoding includes national characters, special characters, the digits 0-9, and control characters.
character literal
See character constant.
character string (text string, string)
one or more consecutive alphanumeric characters, other keyboard characters, or both. See also character constant.
character value
a value that can contain alphabetic characters, the numeric characters 0 through 9, and other special characters.
a template for an object. A class includes data that describes the object's characteristics (such as attributes or instance variables), as well as the operations (methods) that the object can perform. See also subclassing, object.
a temporary storage place for data that is being passed from one application to another. For example, in Windows operating environments, you can use the clipboard to pass information between Excel and your SAS session.
command prompt
the symbol after which you enter operating system commands.
a self-contained, reusable programming object that provides some type of service to other components in an object-oriented programming environment.
a system file that contains DOS configuration commands that specify the properties of the operating system, including device drivers, file-handling elements, and memory-management options.
configuration file
an external file containing the SAS system options that define the environment in which to run SAS. These system options take effect each time you invoke SAS.
Control Panel
under Windows, an application that enables you to specify characteristics of your Windows session, such as mouse tracking speed and the color of the title bar.
conventional memory
in servers that are running 32-bit operating systems, the first 4 gigabytes of main memory. In servers that are running 64-bit operating systems, all of the main memory is conventional memory.
CPU (central processing unit)
the main hardware component of a computer. The CPU executes program instructions and controls the operation of other parts of the computer.
CPU time
the amount of time it takes for the central processing unit of a computer system to perform the calculations or other operations that you request.
current folder
the folder to which commands and actions apply when you execute an application.
See Distributed Component Object Model.
See Dynamic Data Exchange.
device driver
a program that controls the interaction between a computer and an external device such as a printer or a disk drive.
a named subdivision on a computer disk, used in organizing files and often represented by a folder icon.
Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)
an extension to the Component Object Model (COM) that enables components to request services from components that are on other computers in a network. See also component.
DLL (dynamic link library)
a collection of executable program modules that are loaded at run time as needed.
docking view
a view of the main SAS window in which one or more windows, such as the Explorer and Results windows, are integrated with the left side of the main SAS window.
a disk operating system for personal computers. In SAS documentation, the acronym DOS refers specifically to MS-DOS, the Microsoft disk operating system, which was developed by Microsoft for IBM.
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)
a standard mechanism in the PC environment for sharing data among applications.
dynamic link library
See DLL.
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
a family of single-byte and multi-byte encodings for the representation of data on IBM mainframe and mid-range computers. See also ASCII.
a mapping of a coded character set to code values.
Enhanced Editor
an ASCII text editor that provides features such as color coding and code sections to help SAS users write and debug SAS programs. The Enhanced Editor also provides familiar features of the SAS Program Editor.
environment variable
a variable that equates one character string to another, and that can be used in a particular environment.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
extended memory
See extended server memory.
extended server memory (extended memory)
on a server that is running a 32-bit operating system, the part of main memory that exceeds the 4 gigabytes of conventional memory. See also conventional memory.
external file
a file that is created and maintained by a host operating system or by another vendor's software application. An external file contains both data and stored SAS statements.
fatal error
an error that causes a program to end abnormally or that prevents the program from starting.
file extension
the classification of a file in a directory that identifies what type of information is stored in the file. For example, .sas7bcat is the file extension for UNIX, and .pdf is the file extension for Adobe Acrobat.
the identifier that is used for a file. The filename includes the file extension, as in PROFILE.SC2.
a typeface with a specific character shape, spacing, weight, and size. The characters in a font can be figures, symbols, or alphanumeric.
graphical user interface (GUI)
any system that uses graphical objects such as windows, menus, icons, buttons, and check boxes to represent the functions of a software application and to enable the user to interact with the application. By contrast, a command-line interface requires users to interact with the software application by entering text. Many graphical user interfaces use visual metaphors for real-world objects such as file cabinets, folders, rulers, and scissors.
See graphical user interface.
host option
in a SAS statement, an option that is specific to a particular operating environment.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
a coding system in which the codes indicate the layout and style of the text in a text file. Other HTML codes enable you to embed electronic objects such as images, sounds, video streams, and applets (small software applications) into HTML documents. All web browsers can process HTML documents.
HyperText Markup Language
library member
any of several types of SAS file in a SAS library. A library member can be a data set, a view, a catalog, a stored program, or an access descriptor.
library reference
See libref.
libref (library reference)
a SAS name that is associated with the location of a SAS library. For example, in the name MYLIB.MYFILE, MYLIB is the libref, and MYFILE is a file in the SAS library.
logical name
a reference to a SAS library or an operating environment resource whose representation varies according to the operating environment. Examples are the SAS library named Work and an output device such as a disk or a tape file.
member name
a name that is assigned to a SAS file in a SAS library.
the size of the work area that the central processing unit (CPU) must devote to the operations in a program.
memory-based library
a SAS library that is stored either in conventional memory or in extended server memory (rather than on a data storage device) for the duration of a SAS session or job. See also conventional memory, extended server memory.
named pipe
a named object that provides client-to-server, server-to-client, or duplex communication between unrelated processes. You can use named pipes to establish communication between Windows applications, including multiple SAS sessions.
national character
a character that is specific to a language as it is written in a nation or group of nations. For example, the letter “n” with a tilde (ñ) is a Spanish national character.
an interconnected group of computers.
NT file system (NTFS)
an advanced system for organizing directories and files. NTFS supports long filenames, full security access control, file system recovery, and extremely large storage media.
See NT file system.
an entity that can be manipulated by the commands of a programming language. In object-oriented programming, an object is a compilation of attributes (object elements) and behaviors (methods) that describe an entity. Unlike simple data types that are single pieces of information (for example, int=10), objects are complex and must be constructed.
Object Linking and Embedding
See OLE.
See Open Database Connectivity.
ODBC driver
a loadable library module that provides a standardized interface for accessing, manipulating, and updating data that is created and maintained by a particular vendor's data management software. For example, the SAS(c) Drivers for ODBC enable you to access, manipulate, and update SAS data sources from any application that conforms to the ODBC standard. See also Open Database Connectivity.
See Output Delivery System.
OLE (Object Linking and Embedding)
a method of interprocess communication supported by Windows that involves a client/server architecture. OLE enables an object that was created by one application to be embedded in or linked to another application.
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
an interface standard that provides a common application programming interface (API) for accessing data. Many software products that run in the Windows operating environment adhere to this standard so that you can access data that was created using other software products.
Output Delivery System (ODS)
a component of SAS software that can produce output in a variety of formats such as markup languages (HTML, XML), PDF, listing, RTF, PostScript, and SAS data sets.
a hierarchical sequence of directories, usually ending in a filename, by which an application or a person can navigate to find a file. A pathname can be absolute (that is, a complete address within the system) or relative (that is, a position in relation to another part of the system).
See Printer Command Language.
See process ID.
See unnamed pipe.
an attribute of a program that enables it to execute in an operating environment other than the one for which it was written.
Printer Command Language (PCL)
a command language that was developed by Hewlett-Packard for controlling Hewlett-Packard printers. Each PCL command consists of an escape key followed by a series of code numbers. Different versions of PCL have been developed for use with different models or types of Hewlett-Packard printers.
process ID (PID)
a unique number that is assigned to each process by the operating system.
Profile catalog
See Sasuser.Profile catalog.
SAS application workspace (AWS, SAS AWS)
a window that contains other windows (child windows) or from which other windows can be invoked, and is not itself a child of a parent window in the same software application.
See SAS application workspace.
SAS name
a name that is assigned to items such as SAS variables and SAS data sets. For most SAS names, the first character must be a letter or an underscore. Subsequent characters can be letters, numbers, or underscores. Blanks and special characters (except the underscore) are not allowed. However, the VALIDVARNAME= system option determines what rules apply to SAS variable names. The maximum length of a SAS name depends on the language element that it is assigned to.
SAS system option (system option)
a type of SAS language element that is applied to any of a number of operations during a SAS session. System options can control SAS session initialization, SAS interactions with hardware and software, and input and output processing of SAS files.
a representation of the name for the directory or folder in which SAS is installed at a site or a computer.
Sasuser.Profile catalog (Profile catalog)
a SAS catalog in which SAS stores information about attributes of the SAS windowing environment for a particular user or site. It contains function-key definitions, fonts for graphics applications, window attributes, and other information that is used by interactive SAS procedures.
serial port
an I/O port (usually employing an RS-232 interface) through which data are transmitted one bit at a time. Most plotters and some laser printers are connected to the host computer via a serial port.
software that provides either resources or services to requesting clients, possibly over a network.
signature line
in the Enhanced Editor, a line of SAS code in which a step keyword (DATA, PROC, or MACRO) appears.
SMP (symmetric multiprocessing)
a type of hardware and software architecture that can improve the speed of I/O and processing. An SMP machine has multiple CPUs and a thread-enabled operating system. An SMP machine is usually configured with multiple controllers and with multiple disk drives per controller.
standard input
the primary source of data going into a command. Standard input comes from the keyboard unless it is being redirected from a file or piped from another command.
standard output
the primary destination of data coming from a command. Standard output goes to the display unless it is being redirected to a file or piped to another command.
See character string.
the process of deriving a new class from an existing class. A new class inherits the characteristics (attributes or instance variables) and operations (methods) of its parent. It can also possess custom attributes and methods. See also class.
to move data or program code from a computer system's main memory to a storage device such as a hard disk, or vice versa.
symmetric multiprocessing
See SMP.
system option
See SAS system option.
the bar at the bottom of the Windows desktop that displays active applications. The taskbar enables you to easily switch between applications and to restore, move, size, minimize, maximize, and close applications.
an abbreviation for a pair of networking protocols. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a standard protocol for transferring information on local area networks such as Ethernets. TCP ensures that process-to-process information is delivered in the appropriate order. Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol for managing connections between operating environments. IP routes information through the network to a particular operating environment and fragments and reassembles information in transfers.
text string
See character string.
the smallest unit of processing that can be scheduled by an operating system.
title bar
under Windows, an element of a window that displays the title of the window. The title bar is at the top of the window and is highlighted if the window is active.
in Windows, a part of the SAS windowing environment that contains icons that you can associate with SAS commands or macros. Selecting an icon executes its associated command or string of commands. The toolbar is located in the menu bar area of the main SAS window. See also toolbox.
a part of the SAS windowing environment in which you can place icons that you can associate with SAS commands or macros. Selecting an icon executes its associated command or string of commands.
descriptive text that appears when a cursor is placed over certain elements of a graphical user interface, such as the tool icons in a toolbar.
Universal Printing
a feature of SAS software that enables you to send SAS output to PDF, PostScript, GIF, PNG, SVG, and PCL files, as well as directly to printers. The Universal Printing system also provides many options that enable you to customize your output, and it is available in all of the operating environments that SAS supports.
unnamed pipe (pipe)
under UNIX operating systems and derivatives, the facility that links one command to another so that the standard output of one becomes the standard input of the other. See also named pipe.
window bar
the bar at the bottom of the SAS main window that includes a button for each SAS window that is open in your current SAS session. When you select one of the buttons, the window that is associated with that button becomes the active window and appears on top of the other windows. You can also right-click on a button to access a menu that enables you to move, size, minimize, maximize, or close the associated window, or to access a different menu that is specific to that window.