Autoregressive movingaverage error processes (ARMA errors) and other models that involve lags of error terms can be estimated by using FIT statements and simulated or forecast by using SOLVE statements. ARMA models for the error process are often used for models with autocorrelated residuals. The %AR macro can be used to specify models with autoregressive error processes. The %MA macro can be used to specify models with movingaverage error processes.
A model with firstorder autoregressive errors, AR(1), has the form
while an AR(2) error process has the form
and so forth for higherorder processes. Note that the ’s are independent and identically distributed and have an expected value of 0.
An example of a model with an AR(2) component is
You would write this model as
proc model data=in; parms a b p1 p2; y = a + b * x1 + p1 * zlag1(y  (a + b * x1)) + p2 * zlag2(y  (a + b * x1)); fit y; run;
or equivalently using the %AR macro as
proc model data=in; parms a b; y = a + b * x1; %ar( y, 2 ); fit y; run;
A model with firstorder movingaverage errors, MA(1), has the form
where is identically and independently distributed with mean zero. An MA(2) error process has the form
and so forth for higherorder processes.
For example, you can write a simple linear regression model with MA(2) movingaverage errors as
proc model data=inma2; parms a b ma1 ma2; y = a + b * x + ma1 * zlag1( resid.y ) + ma2 * zlag2( resid.y ); fit; run;
where MA1 and MA2 are the movingaverage parameters.
Note that RESID.Y is automatically defined by PROC MODEL as
pred.y = a + b * x + ma1 * zlag1( resid.y ) + ma2 * zlag2( resid.y ); resid.y = pred.y  actual.y;
Note that RESID.Y is negative of .
The ZLAG function must be used for MA models to truncate the recursion of the lags. This ensures that the lagged errors start at zero in the lagpriming phase and do not propagate missing values when lagpriming period variables are missing, and it ensures that the future errors are zero rather than missing during simulation or forecasting. For details about the lag functions, see the section Lag Logic.
This model written using the %MA macro is as follows:
proc model data=inma2; parms a b; y = a + b * x; %ma(y, 2); fit; run;
The general ARMA(p,q ) process has the following form
An ARMA(p,q ) model can be specified as follows:
yhat = ... compute structural predicted value here ... ; yarma = ar1 * zlag1( y  yhat ) + ... /* ar part */ + ar(p) * zlag(p)( y  yhat ) + ma1 * zlag1( resid.y ) + ... /* ma part */ + ma(q) * zlag(q)( resid.y ); y = yhat + yarma;
where ARi and MAj represent the autoregressive and movingaverage parameters for the various lags. You can use any names you want for these variables, and there are many equivalent ways that the specification could be written.
Vector ARMA processes can also be estimated with PROC MODEL. For example, a twovariable AR(1) process for the errors of the two endogenous variables Y1 and Y2 can be specified as follows:
y1hat = ... compute structural predicted value here ... ; y1 = y1hat + ar1_1 * zlag1( y1  y1hat ) /* ar part y1,y1 */ + ar1_2 * zlag1( y2  y2hat ); /* ar part y1,y2 */ y21hat = ... compute structural predicted value here ... ; y2 = y2hat + ar2_2 * zlag1( y2  y2hat ) /* ar part y2,y2 */ + ar2_1 * zlag1( y1  y1hat ); /* ar part y2,y1 */
ARMA models can be difficult to estimate. If the parameter estimates are not within the appropriate range, a movingaverage model’s residual terms grow exponentially. The calculated residuals for later observations can be very large or can overflow. This can happen either because improper starting values were used or because the iterations moved away from reasonable values.
Care should be used in choosing starting values for ARMA parameters. Starting values of 0.001 for ARMA parameters usually work if the model fits the data well and the problem is wellconditioned. Note that an MA model can often be approximated by a highorder AR model, and vice versa. This can result in high collinearity in mixed ARMA models, which in turn can cause serious illconditioning in the calculations and instability of the parameter estimates.
If you have convergence problems while estimating a model with ARMA error processes, try to estimate in steps. First, use a FIT statement to estimate only the structural parameters with the ARMA parameters held to zero (or to reasonable prior estimates if available). Next, use another FIT statement to estimate the ARMA parameters only, using the structural parameter values from the first run. Since the values of the structural parameters are likely to be close to their final estimates, the ARMA parameter estimates might now converge. Finally, use another FIT statement to produce simultaneous estimates of all the parameters. Since the initial values of the parameters are now likely to be quite close to their final joint estimates, the estimates should converge quickly if the model is appropriate for the data.
The initial lags of the error terms of AR(p ) models can be modeled in different ways. The autoregressive error startup methods supported by SAS/ETS procedures are the following:
conditional least squares (ARIMA and MODEL procedures)
unconditional least squares (AUTOREG, ARIMA, and MODEL procedures)
maximum likelihood (AUTOREG, ARIMA, and MODEL procedures)
YuleWalker (AUTOREG procedure only)
HildrethLu, which deletes the first p observations (MODEL procedure only)
See Chapter 8: The AUTOREG Procedure, for an explanation and discussion of the merits of various AR(p) startup methods.
The CLS, ULS, ML, and HL initializations can be performed by PROC MODEL. For AR(1) errors, these initializations can be produced as shown in Table 19.2. These methods are equivalent in large samples.
Table 19.2: Initializations Performed by PROC MODEL: AR(1) ERRORS
Method 
Formula 

conditional least squares 
Y=YHAT+AR1*ZLAG1(YYHAT); 
unconditional least squares 
Y=YHAT+AR1*ZLAG1(YYHAT); 
IF _OBS_=1 THEN 

RESID.Y=SQRT(1AR1**2)*RESID.Y; 

maximum likelihood 
Y=YHAT+AR1*ZLAG1(YYHAT); 
W=(1AR1**2)**(1/(2*_NUSED_)); 

IF _OBS_=1 THEN W=W*SQRT(1AR1**2); 

RESID.Y=W*RESID.Y; 

HildrethLu 
Y=YHAT+AR1*LAG1(YYHAT); 
The initial lags of the error terms of MA(q ) models can also be modeled in different ways. The following movingaverage error startup paradigms are supported by the ARIMA and MODEL procedures:
unconditional least squares
conditional least squares
maximum likelihood
The conditional least squares method of estimating movingaverage error terms is not optimal because it ignores the startup problem. This reduces the efficiency of the estimates, although they remain unbiased. The initial lagged residuals, extending before the start of the data, are assumed to be 0, their unconditional expected value. This introduces a difference between these residuals and the generalized least squares residuals for the movingaverage covariance, which, unlike the autoregressive model, persists through the data set. Usually this difference converges quickly to 0, but for nearly noninvertible movingaverage processes the convergence is quite slow. To minimize this problem, you should have plenty of data, and the movingaverage parameter estimates should be well within the invertible range.
This problem can be corrected at the expense of writing a more complex program. Unconditional least squares estimates for the MA(1) process can be produced by specifying the model as follows:
yhat = ... compute structural predicted value here ... ; if _obs_ = 1 then do; h = sqrt( 1 + ma1 ** 2 ); y = yhat; resid.y = ( y  yhat ) / h; end; else do; g = ma1 / zlag1( h ); h = sqrt( 1 + ma1 ** 2  g ** 2 ); y = yhat + g * zlag1( resid.y ); resid.y = ( ( y  yhat)  g * zlag1( resid.y ) ) / h; end;
Movingaverage errors can be difficult to estimate. You should consider using an AR(p ) approximation to the movingaverage process. A movingaverage process can usually be wellapproximated by an autoregressive process if the data have not been smoothed or differenced.
The SAS macro %AR generates programming statements for PROC MODEL for autoregressive models. The %AR macro is part of SAS/ETS software, and no special options need to be set to use the macro. The autoregressive process can be applied to the structural equation errors or to the endogenous series themselves.
The %AR macro can be used for the following types of autoregression:
univariate autoregression
unrestricted vector autoregression
restricted vector autoregression
To model the error term of an equation as an autoregressive process, use the following statement after the equation:
%ar( varname, nlags )
For example, suppose that Y is a linear function of X1, X2, and an AR(2) error. You would write this model as follows:
proc model data=in; parms a b c; y = a + b * x1 + c * x2; %ar( y, 2 ) fit y / list; run;
The calls to %AR must come after all of the equations that the process applies to.
The preceding macro invocation, %AR(y,2), produces the statements shown in the LIST output in Figure 19.60.
Figure 19.60: LIST Option Output for an AR(2) Model
Listing of Compiled Program Code  

Stmt  Line:Col  Statement as Parsed 
1  2498:4  PRED.y = a + b * x1 + c * x2; 
1  2498:4  RESID.y = PRED.y  ACTUAL.y; 
1  2498:4  ERROR.y = PRED.y  y; 
2  2499:14  _PRED__y = PRED.y; 
3  2499:15  _OLD_PRED.y = PRED.y + y_l1 * ZLAG1( y  _PRED__y ) + y_l2 * ZLAG2( y  _PRED__y ); 
3  2499:15  PRED.y = _OLD_PRED.y; 
3  2499:15  RESID.y = PRED.y  ACTUAL.y; 
3  2499:15  ERROR.y = PRED.y  y; 
The _PRED__ prefixed variables are temporary program variables used so that the lags of the residuals are the correct residuals and not the ones redefined by this equation. Note that this is equivalent to the statements explicitly written in the section General Form for ARMA Models.
You can also restrict the autoregressive parameters to zero at selected lags. For example, if you wanted autoregressive parameters at lags 1, 12, and 13, you can use the following statements:
proc model data=in; parms a b c; y = a + b * x1 + c * x2; %ar( y, 13, , 1 12 13 ) fit y / list; run;
These statements generate the output shown in Figure 19.61.
Figure 19.61: LIST Option Output for an AR Model with Lags at 1, 12, and 13
Listing of Compiled Program Code  

Stmt  Line:Col  Statement as Parsed 
1  2507:4  PRED.y = a + b * x1 + c * x2; 
1  2507:4  RESID.y = PRED.y  ACTUAL.y; 
1  2507:4  ERROR.y = PRED.y  y; 
2  2508:14  _PRED__y = PRED.y; 
3  2508:15  _OLD_PRED.y = PRED.y + y_l1 * ZLAG1( y  _PRED__y ) + y_l12 * ZLAG12( y  _PRED__y ) + y_l13 * ZLAG13( y  _PRED__y ); 
3  2508:15  PRED.y = _OLD_PRED.y; 
3  2508:15  RESID.y = PRED.y  ACTUAL.y; 
3  2508:15  ERROR.y = PRED.y  y; 
There are variations on the conditional least squares method, depending on whether observations at the start of the series are used to "warm up" the AR process. By default, the %AR conditional least squares method uses all the observations and assumes zeros for the initial lags of autoregressive terms. By using the M= option, you can request that %AR use the unconditional least squares (ULS) or maximumlikelihood (ML) method instead. For example,
proc model data=in; y = a + b * x1 + c * x2; %ar( y, 2, m=uls ) fit y; run;
Discussions of these methods is provided in the section AR Initial Conditions.
By using the M=CLSn option, you can request that the first n observations be used to compute estimates of the initial autoregressive lags. In this case, the analysis starts with observation n +1. For example:
proc model data=in; y = a + b * x1 + c * x2; %ar( y, 2, m=cls2 ) fit y; run;
You can use the %AR macro to apply an autoregressive model to the endogenous variable, instead of to the error term, by using the TYPE=V option. For example, if you want to add the five past lags of Y to the equation in the previous example, you could use %AR to generate the parameters and lags by using the following statements:
proc model data=in; parms a b c; y = a + b * x1 + c * x2; %ar( y, 5, type=v ) fit y / list; run;
The preceding statements generate the output shown in Figure 19.62.
Figure 19.62: LIST Option Output for an AR model of Y
Listing of Compiled Program Code  

Stmt  Line:Col  Statement as Parsed 
1  2530:4  PRED.y = a + b * x1 + c * x2; 
1  2530:4  RESID.y = PRED.y  ACTUAL.y; 
1  2530:4  ERROR.y = PRED.y  y; 
2  2531:15  _OLD_PRED.y = PRED.y + y_l1 * ZLAG1( y ) + y_l2 * ZLAG2( y ) + y_l3 * ZLAG3( y ) + y_l4 * ZLAG4( y ) + y_l5 * ZLAG5( y ); 
2  2531:15  PRED.y = _OLD_PRED.y; 
2  2531:15  RESID.y = PRED.y  ACTUAL.y; 
2  2531:15  ERROR.y = PRED.y  y; 
This model predicts Y as a linear combination of X1, X2, an intercept, and the values of Y in the most recent five periods.
To model the error terms of a set of equations as a vector autoregressive process, use the following form of the %AR macro after the equations:
%ar( process_name, nlags, variable_list )
The process_name value is any name that you supply for %AR to use in making names for the autoregressive parameters. You can use the %AR macro to model several different AR processes for different sets of equations by using different process names for each set. The process name ensures that the variable names used are unique. Use a short process_name value for the process if parameter estimates are to be written to an output data set. The %AR macro tries to construct parameter names less than or equal to eight characters, but this is limited by the length of process_name, which is used as a prefix for the AR parameter names.
The variable_list value is the list of endogenous variables for the equations.
For example, suppose that errors for equations Y1, Y2, and Y3 are generated by a secondorder vector autoregressive process. You can use the following statements:
proc model data=in; y1 = ... equation for y1 ...; y2 = ... equation for y2 ...; y3 = ... equation for y3 ...; %ar( name, 2, y1 y2 y3 ) fit y1 y2 y3; run;
which generate the following for Y1 and similar code for Y2 and Y3:
y1 = pred.y1 + name1_1_1*zlag1(y1name_y1) + name1_1_2*zlag1(y2name_y2) + name1_1_3*zlag1(y3name_y3) + name2_1_1*zlag2(y1name_y1) + name2_1_2*zlag2(y2name_y2) + name2_1_3*zlag2(y3name_y3) ;
Only the conditional least squares (M=CLS or M=CLSn ) method can be used for vector processes.
You can also use the same form with restrictions that the coefficient matrix be 0 at selected lags. For example, the following statements apply a thirdorder vector process to the equation errors with all the coefficients at lag 2 restricted to 0 and with the coefficients at lags 1 and 3 unrestricted:
proc model data=in; y1 = ... equation for y1 ...; y2 = ... equation for y2 ...; y3 = ... equation for y3 ...; %ar( name, 3, y1 y2 y3, 1 3 ) fit y1 y2 y3;
You can model the three series Y1–Y3 as a vector autoregressive process in the variables instead of in the errors by using the TYPE=V option. If you want to model Y1–Y3 as a function of past values of Y1–Y3 and some exogenous variables or constants, you can use %AR to generate the statements for the lag terms. Write an equation for each variable for the nonautoregressive part of the model, and then call %AR with the TYPE=V option. For example,
proc model data=in; parms a1a3 b1b3; y1 = a1 + b1 * x; y2 = a2 + b2 * x; y3 = a3 + b3 * x; %ar( name, 2, y1 y2 y3, type=v ) fit y1 y2 y3; run;
The nonautoregressive part of the model can be a function of exogenous variables, or it can be intercept parameters. If there are no exogenous components to the vector autoregression model, including no intercepts, then assign zero to each of the variables. There must be an assignment to each of the variables before %AR is called.
proc model data=in; y1=0; y2=0; y3=0; %ar( name, 2, y1 y2 y3, type=v ) fit y1 y2 y3; run;
This example models the vector Y=(Y1 Y2 Y3) as a linear function only of its value in the previous two periods and a white noise error vector. The model has 18=(3 3 + 3 3) parameters.
There are two cases of the syntax of the %AR macro. When restrictions on a vector AR process are not needed, the syntax of the %AR macro has the general form
specifies a prefix for %AR to use in constructing names of variables needed to define the AR process. If the endolist is not specified, the endogenous list defaults to name, which must be the name of the equation to which the AR error process is to be applied. The name value cannot exceed 32 characters.
is the order of the AR process.
specifies the list of equations to which the AR process is to be applied. If more than one name is given, an unrestricted vector process is created with the structural residuals of all the equations included as regressors in each of the equations. If not specified, endolist defaults to name.
specifies the list of lags at which the AR terms are to be added. The coefficients of the terms at lags not listed are set to 0. All of the listed lags must be less than or equal to nlag, and there must be no duplicates. If not specified, the laglist defaults to all lags 1 through nlag.
specifies the estimation method to implement. Valid values of M= are CLS (conditional least squares estimates), ULS (unconditional least squares estimates), and ML (maximum likelihood estimates). M=CLS is the default. Only M=CLS is allowed when more than one equation is specified. The ULS and ML methods are not supported for vector AR models by %AR.
specifies that the AR process is to be applied to the endogenous variables themselves instead of to the structural residuals of the equations.
You can control which parameters are included in the process, restricting to 0 those parameters that you do not include. First, use %AR with the DEFER option to declare the variable list and define the dimension of the process. Then, use additional %AR calls to generate terms for selected equations with selected variables at selected lags. For example,
proc model data=d; y1 = ... equation for y1 ...; y2 = ... equation for y2 ...; y3 = ... equation for y3 ...; %ar( name, 2, y1 y2 y3, defer ) %ar( name, y1, y1 y2 ) %ar( name, y2 y3, , 1 ) fit y1 y2 y3; run;
The error equations produced are as follows:
y1 = pred.y1 + name1_1_1*zlag1(y1name_y1) + name1_1_2*zlag1(y2name_y2) + name2_1_1*zlag2(y1name_y1) + name2_1_2*zlag2(y2name_y2) ; y2 = pred.y2 + name1_2_1*zlag1(y1name_y1) + name1_2_2*zlag1(y2name_y2) + name1_2_3*zlag1(y3name_y3) ; y3 = pred.y3 + name1_3_1*zlag1(y1name_y1) + name1_3_2*zlag1(y2name_y2) + name1_3_3*zlag1(y3name_y3) ;
This model states that the errors for Y1 depend on the errors of both Y1 and Y2 (but not Y3) at both lags 1 and 2, and that the errors for Y2 and Y3 depend on the previous errors for all three variables, but only at lag 1.
An alternative use of %AR is allowed to impose restrictions on a vector AR process by calling %AR several times to specify different AR terms and lags for different equations.
The first call has the general form
where
specifies a prefix for %AR to use in constructing names of variables needed to define the vector AR process.
specifies the order of the AR process.
specifies the list of equations to which the AR process is to be applied.
specifies that %AR is not to generate the AR process but is to wait for further information specified in later %AR calls for the same name value.
The subsequent calls have the general form
%AR( name, eqlist, varlist, laglist,TYPE= )
where
is the same as in the first call.
specifies the list of equations to which the specifications in this %AR call are to be applied. Only names specified in the endolist value of the first call for the name value can appear in the list of equations in eqlist.
specifies the list of equations whose lagged structural residuals are to be included as regressors in the equations in eqlist. Only names in the endolist of the first call for the name value can appear in varlist. If not specified, varlist defaults to endolist.
specifies the list of lags at which the AR terms are to be added. The coefficients of the terms at lags not listed are set to 0. All of the listed lags must be less than or equal to the value of nlag, and there must be no duplicates. If not specified, laglist defaults to all lags 1 through nlag.
The SAS macro %MA generates programming statements for PROC MODEL for movingaverage models. The %MA macro is part of SAS/ETS software, and no special options are needed to use the macro. The movingaverage error process can be applied to the structural equation errors. The syntax of the %MA macro is the same as the %AR macro except there is no TYPE= argument.
When you are using the %MA and %AR macros combined, the %MA macro must follow the %AR macro. The following SAS/IML statements produce an ARMA(1, (1 3)) error process and save it in the data set MADAT2.
proc iml; phi = { 1 .2 }; theta = { 1 .3 0 .5 }; y = armasim( phi, theta, 0, .1, 200, 32565 ); create madat2 from y[colname='y']; append from y; quit;
The following PROC MODEL statements are used to estimate the parameters of this model by using maximum likelihood error structure:
title 'Maximum Likelihood ARMA(1, (1 3))'; proc model data=madat2; y=0; %ar( y, 1, , M=ml ) %ma( y, 3, , 1 3, M=ml ) /* %MA always after %AR */ fit y; run; title;
The estimates of the parameters produced by this run are shown in Figure 19.63.
There are two cases of the syntax for the %MA macro. When restrictions on a vector MA process are not needed, the syntax of the %MA macro has the general form
where
specifies a prefix for %MA to use in constructing names of variables needed to define the MA process and is the default endolist.
is the order of the MA process.
specifies the equations to which the MA process is to be applied. If more than one name is given, CLS estimation is used for the vector process.
specifies the lags at which the MA terms are to be added. All of the listed lags must be less than or equal to nlag, and there must be no duplicates. If not specified, the laglist defaults to all lags 1 through nlag.
specifies the estimation method to implement. Valid values of M= are CLS (conditional least squares estimates), ULS (unconditional least squares estimates), and ML (maximum likelihood estimates). M=CLS is the default. Only M=CLS is allowed when more than one equation is specified in the endolist.
An alternative use of %MA is allowed to impose restrictions on a vector MA process by calling %MA several times to specify different MA terms and lags for different equations.
The first call has the general form
where
specifies a prefix for %MA to use in constructing names of variables needed to define the vector MA process.
specifies the order of the MA process.
specifies the list of equations to which the MA process is to be applied.
specifies that %MA is not to generate the MA process but is to wait for further information specified in later %MA calls for the same name value.
The subsequent calls have the general form
%MA( name, eqlist, varlist, laglist )
where
is the same as in the first call.
specifies the list of equations to which the specifications in this %MA call are to be applied.
specifies the list of equations whose lagged structural residuals are to be included as regressors in the equations in eqlist.
specifies the list of lags at which the MA terms are to be added.