a SAS/ACCESS file that describes data that is
managed by SAS, by a database management system, or by a PC-based
software application such as Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, or dBASE.
After creating an access descriptor, you can use it as the basis for
creating one or more view descriptors. See also SAS/ACCESS view and
an entity-type that consists of a collection of
information in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database.
a method of executing SAS programs in which a
file that contains SAS statements plus any necessary operating environment
commands is submitted to the computer's batch queue. After you submit
the program, control returns to your computer, and you can perform
other tasks. Batch mode is sometimes referred to as running in the
background. The program output can be written to files or printed
on an output device.
the process of viewing the contents of a file.
Depending on how the file is accessed, you can view SAS data either
one observation (row) at a time or as a group in a tabular format.
You cannot update data that you are browsing.
a collection of CA-Datacom/DB tables that have
been organized within certain CA-Datacom/DB areas and files. The records
in each table contain one or more FIELD entity-occurrences.
a variable in a SAS data file. Each SAS column
can have the following attributes: name, type (character or numeric),
length, format, informat, and label. In the ACCESS procedure, columns
are created from CA-Datacom/DB fields.
See format, SAS column.
a pattern or set of instructions that SAS uses
to determine how data values in an input file should be interpreted.
SAS provides a set of standard informats and also enables you to define
your own informats.
a field that contains two or more simple fields
or compound fields that are contiguous. A compound field can contain
data of different types and lengths. Compound fields can also be repeated
or can be contained by other fields. See also simple field.
an attribute of every CA-Datacom/DB field that
tells CA-Datacom/DB how much physical storage to set aside for the
field and what type of data the field will contain. CA-Datacom/DB
supports 16 types of character and numeric data. The CA-Datacom/DB
data type is similar to the type attribute of SAS columns.
in CA-Datacom/DB, a character value or numeric
value that is stored in a field.
an organized collection of related data. A database
usually contains named files, named objects, or other named entities
such as tables, views, and indexes. In CA-Datacom/DB, a database is
an entity-type that contains areas, files, records, and fields. Each
DATABASE entity-occurrence has a name and attributes in the CA-DATADICTIONARY
database management system
a software application that enables you to create
and manipulate data that is stored in the form of databases. Short
See database management system.
a type of SAS/ACCESS file that is used to establish
a connection between SAS and files that are created and maintained
by other software applications. Descriptor files describe data to
SAS. To create descriptor files, you use the ACCESS procedure. There
are two types of descriptor files: access descriptors and view descriptors.
the process of viewing the contents of a file
with the intent and the ability to change those contents. Depending
on how the file is accessed, you can view the data either one observation
at a time or in a tabular format.
a CA-Datacom/DB unit of transfer between application
programs and CA-Datacom/DB. An element consists of one or more contiguous
a component of SAS software that reads from or
writes to a file. Each engine enables SAS to access files that are
in a particular file format. There are several types of engines. See
also interface view engine.
an instance of a particular entity-type. For example,
defining a database involves storing information about the database
in a DATABASE occurrence. Each database is listed by its unique name
as an occurrence of the DATABASE entity.
any of the following data structures in which
CA-Datacom/DB data can be stored: databases, areas, fields, records,
the vertical component of a CA-Datacom/DB table,
which other software vendors refer to as a column or as a variable.
There are four types of fields: key field, simple field, compound
field, and repeating field. Each field has a name as well as specific
attributes such as data type and length.
a collection of related records that are treated
as a unit. SAS files are processed and controlled by SAS and are stored
in SAS libraries. In CA-Datacom/DB, each database contains one or
more FILE entity-occurrences that comprise specific records, fields,
and elements. The unique name and attributes of each FILE must be
specified in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database.
in SAS software, a component of a SAS data set
that enables SAS to access observations in the SAS data set quickly
and efficiently. The purpose of SAS indexes is to optimize WHERE-clause
processing and to facilitate BY-group processing. In CA-Datacom/DB,
an index contains an entry for each key value in each record in a
database. If a field is not indexed, the values are not indexed. However,
the fields and key values can still be searched sequentially.
interactive line mode
a method of running SAS programs in which you
enter one line of a SAS program at a time at the SAS session prompt.
SAS processes each line immediately after you press the ENTER or RETURN
key. Procedure output and informative messages are returned directly
to your display device.
interface view engine
a SAS engine that SAS/ACCESS software uses to
retrieve data from files that have been formatted by another vendor's
software. Each SAS/ACCESS interface has its own interface view engine,
which reads the interface product data and returns the data in a form
that SAS can understand (that is, in a SAS data set). SAS automatically
uses an interface view engine; the engine name is stored in SAS/ACCESS
descriptor files so that you do not need to specify the engine name
in a LIBNAME statement.
in CA-Datacom/DB, a field that enables you to
quickly select and sequence data records. A key can be any combination
of simple and compound fields and can be up to 180 characters long.
The fields in the key do not have to be contiguous. See also Native
Key and Master Key.
a name that is temporarily associated with a SAS
library. The complete name of a SAS file consists of two words, separated
by a period. The libref, which is the first word, indicates the library.
The second word is the name of the specific SAS file. For example,
in VLIB.NEWBDAY, the libref VLIB tells SAS which library contains
the file NEWBDAY. You assign a libref with a LIBNAME statement or
with an operating system command.
a field that enables you to prevent values in
a key field from being duplicated and to prevent values in that key
from being changed. Each record must have one Master Key. The Master
Key can also be the Native Key.
a SAS file in a SAS library.
a name that is assigned to a SAS file in a SAS
library. See also member type.
a SAS name that identifies the type of information
that is stored in a SAS file. Member types include ACCESS, AUDIT,
DMBD, DATA, CATALOG, FDB, INDEX, ITEMSTOR, MDDB, PROGRAM, UTILITY,
in SAS, a term that describes the contents of
a variable that contains no data for a particular row or observation.
By default, SAS prints or displays a missing numeric value as a single
period, and it prints or displays a missing character value as a blank
space. In a CA-Datacom/DB database, missing values are always represented
by a blank space.
a CA-Datacom/DB execution environment in which
several users access a database at the same time, with queries and
updates being handled simultaneously by a single copy of the software.
See also single-user environment.
a field that determines the order of the records
in a CA-Datacom/DB table. Each table must have one Native Key. The
Native Key can also be the Master Key.
the horizontal component of a CA-Datacom/DB table.
A record is a set of fields that are treated as a unit. Records within
a table are ordered by the Native Key. A record is analogous to a
a simple field or compound field that can occur
more than once. Repeating fields can also be nested within other repeating
a collection of data values that are associated
with a single entity such as a customer or a state. Each row contains
one data value for each variable. A row is analogous to a record in
a CA-Datacom/DB table.
SAS column format
a pattern or set of instructions that SAS uses
to determine how the values of a variable (or column) should be written
or displayed. SAS provides a set of standard formats and also enables
you to define your own formats.
SAS data file
a type of SAS data set that contains data values
as well as descriptor information that is associated with the data.
The descriptor information includes information such as the data types
and lengths of the variables, as well as the name of the engine that
was used to create the data. See also SAS data set and SAS data view.
SAS data set
a file whose contents are in one of the native
SAS file formats. There are two types of SAS data sets: SAS data files
and SAS data views. SAS data files contain data values in addition
to descriptor information that is associated with the data. SAS data
views contain only the descriptor information plus other information
that is required for retrieving data values from other SAS data sets
or from files that are stored in other software vendors' file formats.
SAS data view
a type of SAS data set that retrieves data values
from other files. A SAS data view contains only descriptor information
such as the data types and lengths of the variables (columns) plus
other information that is required for retrieving data values from
other SAS data sets or from files that are stored in other software
vendors' file formats. SAS data views can be created by the SAS DATA
step and by the SAS SQL procedure.
a collection of one or more files that are recognized
by SAS and that are referenced and stored as a unit. Each file is
a member of the library.
a single CA-Datacom/DB field. See also compound
a CA-Datacom/DB execution environment in which
each user has a copy of CA-Datacom/DB and has exclusive use of any
database that he or she is currently accessing. See also multi-user
a collection of data records and fields. In the
CA-DATADICTIONARY database, the combination of one FILE entity-occurrence
and one RECORD entity-occurrence describes a table. A table is equivalent
to a SAS data file.
See data type.
See User Requirements Table.
a string of characters that a user must specify
correctly in order to gain access to the CA-DATADICTIONARY database.
User Requirements Table
a load module that is required by CA-Datacom/DB.
The URT is loaded by the interface view engine and is passed to CA-Datacom/DB
when a table is opened. It contains information about how the table
is to be accessed. Various values in the URT, such as the number and
size of buffers, can affect performance. Short form: URT.
a column in a SAS data set or in a SAS data view.
The data values for each variable describe a single characteristic
for all observations (rows). Each SAS variable can have the following
attributes: name, data type (character or numeric), length, format,
informat, and label. In the ACCESS procedure, variables are created
from the database product's columns or fields.
a generic term (used by many software vendors)
for a definition of a virtual data set (or table). The definition
is named and stored for later use. A view contains no data; it merely
describes or defines data that is stored elsewhere. See also SAS data
a SAS/ACCESS file that defines part or all of
the DBMS data that is described by an access descriptor. The subset
consists of selected records in a CA-Datacom/DB table. See also access